Table of Contents
Journal of Gravity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4597905, 11 pages
Research Article

Non-Perfect-Fluid Space-Times in Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Generalized Friedmann Equations

Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany

Received 9 June 2016; Revised 29 August 2016; Accepted 13 October 2016

Academic Editor: Sergei D. Odintsov

Copyright © 2016 Konrad Schatz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We determine the energy-momentum tensor of nonperfect fluids in thermodynamic equilibrium and, respectively, near to it. To this end, we derive the constitutive equations for energy density and isotropic and anisotropic pressure as well as for heat-flux from the corresponding propagation equations and by drawing on Einstein’s equations. Following Obukhov on this, we assume the corresponding space-times to be conform-stationary and homogeneous. This procedure provides these quantities in closed form, that is, in terms of the structure constants of the three-dimensional isometry group of homogeneity and, respectively, in terms of the kinematical quantities expansion, rotation, and acceleration. In particular, we find a generalized form of the Friedmann equations. As special cases we recover Friedmann and Gödel models as well as nontilted Bianchi solutions with anisotropic pressure. All of our results are derived without assuming any equations of state or other specific thermodynamic conditions a priori. For the considered models, results in literature are generalized to rotating fluids with dissipative fluxes.