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Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-22
Research Article

Progress in Molecular Imaging in Endoscopy and Endomicroscopy for Cancer Imaging

Supang Khondee1,3 and Thomas D. Wang1,2

1Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand

Received 1 July 2012; Accepted 1 November 2012

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Imaging is an essential tool for effective cancer management. Endoscopes are important medical instruments for performing in vivo imaging in hollow organs. Early detection of cancer can be achieved with surveillance using endoscopy, and has been shown to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. Recently, great advancements have been made in endoscopic instruments, including new developments in optical designs, light sources, optical fibers, miniature scanners, and multimodal systems, allowing for improved resolution, greater tissue penetration, and multispectral imaging. In addition, progress has been made in the development of highly-specific optical probes, allowing for improved specificity for molecular targets. Integration of these new endoscopic instruments with molecular probes provides a unique opportunity for significantly improving patient outcomes and has potential to further improve early detection, image guided therapy, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. This work summarizes current and evolving endoscopic technologies, and provides an overview of various promising optical molecular probes.