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Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 6504890, 6 pages
Research Article

Anti-Skin Cancer Activities of Apostichopus japonicus Extracts from Low-Temperature Ultrasonification Process

1Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
2Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Republic of Korea
3Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Chungju, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Hyeon Yong Lee;

Received 26 October 2016; Accepted 21 March 2017; Published 15 May 2017

Academic Editor: Valentina Camomilla

Copyright © 2017 Nam Young Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. This work aimed to enhance anti-skin cancer activities of Apostichopus japonicus, spiky sea cucumber, through ultrasonification extraction process at low temperature. Methods. Dried Apostichopus japonicus was extracted with an ultrasonification process at 50°C and 95 kHz for two hours (UE), and anti-skin cancer activities of the extract from the UE were also compared with those from conventional extraction processes using hot water (WE) or 70% ethanol at 80°C (EE) for 12 hours. Results. The amount of canthaxanthin in the UE was higher than that in the WE or EE, and its cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes was less than the others. The extract from the UE showed 93.5% inhibition against human malignant cell growth, which was also higher than those from both WE and EE. The extract from the UE demonstrated the ability of inhibiting both cancer cell proliferation and metastasis by downregulating the skin tumor-promoting genes such as Bcl-2, STAT3, and MMP-9. Conclusions. The ultrasonification process was proved to be effective especially in extracting heat-sensitive marine biomass, A. japonicus having higher amounts of canthaxanthin and better anti-skin cancer activities, possibly due to less destruction and high elution of bioactive substances under low temperature extraction condition.