Table 1: Material property of spinal components and implants.

ComponentYoung’s modulus (MPa)Poisson’s ratioCross section (mm2)

Cortical bone12000.00.30
Endplate1200.00.29
Cancellous bone100.00.30
Annulus ground substance4.20.45
Nucleus pulposus1.00.49
Annulus fiber450.00.45
Anterior longitudinal ligaments20.00.3063.7
Posterior longitudinal ligaments20.00.3020.0
Intertransverse ligament58.70.303.6
Ligamentum flavum19.50.3040.0
Interspinous ligament11.60.3040.0
Supraspinous ligament15.00.3030.0
Capsular ligament32.90.3060.0
Pedicle screws and rod110000.00.2820.0
PEEK cage3600.00.25