Table 2: The L4-L5 range of motion (ROM) in different groups under six operating conditions.

ROM ()AF (°)PE (°)LF (°)RF (°)LR (°)RR (°)

Control2.161.701.401.840.900.96
ELIF + UPS0.710.410.380.110.260.28
TLIF + UPS0.880.480.870.120.280.60
TLIF + BPS0.630.080.220.060.100.14
ELIF + UPS + TLFS0.640.100.240.100.170.16
Percentage decrease from control to ELIF + UPS67.13%75.88%72.86%94.02%68.89%70.83%
Percentage decrease from control to TLIF + UPS59.26%71.76%37.86%93.48%52.45%37.50%
Percentage decrease from TLIF + UPS to ELIF + UPS19.32%14.58%56.32%8.33%7.14%53.33%
Percentage decrease from ELIF + UPS to TLIF + BPS11.27%80.49%42.11%45.45%61.54%50.00%
Percentage decrease from ELIF + UPS to ELIF + UPS + TLFS9.86%75.61%36.84%9.09%34.62%42.86%
Percentage decrease from ELIF + UPS + TLFS to TLIF + BPS1.56%20.00%8.33%40.00%41.18%12.50%

ELIF: extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; UPS: unilateral pedicle screw; TLIF: transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; BPS: bilateral pedicle screw; TLFS: translaminar facet screw; AF: anterior flexion; PE: posterior extension; LF: lateral flexion; RF: right flexion; LR: left rotation; RR: right rotation.