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Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 9652948, 11 pages
Research Article

Two-Segment Foot Model for the Biomechanical Analysis of Squat

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy
2Department of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to E. Panero; ti.otilop@orenap.asile

Received 29 April 2017; Accepted 5 July 2017; Published 6 August 2017

Academic Editor: Rafael Morales

Copyright © 2017 E. Panero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Squat exercise is acquiring interest in many fields, due to its benefits in improving health and its biomechanical similarities to a wide range of sport motions and the recruitment of many body segments in a single maneuver. Several researches had examined considerable biomechanical aspects of lower limbs during squat, but not without limitations. The main goal of this study focuses on the analysis of the foot contribution during a partial body weight squat, using a two-segment foot model that considers separately the forefoot and the hindfoot. The forefoot and hindfoot are articulated by the midtarsal joint. Five subjects performed a series of three trials, and results were averaged. Joint kinematics and dynamics were obtained using motion capture system, two force plates closed together, and inverse dynamics techniques. The midtarsal joint reached a dorsiflexion peak of 4°. Different strategies between subjects revealed 4° supination and 2.5° pronation of the forefoot. Vertical GRF showed 20% of body weight concentrated on the forefoot and 30% on the hindfoot. The percentages varied during motion, with a peak of 40% on the hindfoot and correspondently 10% on the forefoot, while the traditional model depicted the unique constant 50% value. Ankle peak of plantarflexion moment, power absorption, and power generation was consistent with values estimated by the one-segment model, without statistical significance.