Table of Contents
Journal of Hormones
Volume 2013, Article ID 294534, 4 pages
Research Article

Estradiol Solubility in Aqueous Systems: Effect of Ionic Concentrations, pH, and Organic Solvents

1Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, MGH Clinical Laboratory Research Core, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2Framingham State University, Framingham, MA 01710, USA

Received 25 March 2013; Accepted 23 June 2013

Academic Editor: Hirotaka Sakamoto

Copyright © 2013 John E. A. Carter and Patrick M. Sluss. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study examined the effects of ionic strengths of NaCl (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 M), pH (3, 7, and 11), and organic solvents (dichloromethane, diethyl ether, and methanol) on the extraction of estradiol at concentrations of 5.0 pg/mL in human serum. Methanol extracted almost 100% of the estradiol at a 5.0 pg/mL concentration, while ether and dichloromethane extracted only 73% or 70%, respectively, of the estradiol. The methanol extracted material was subjected to reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using 60% methanol and was found to elute at the same position as estradiol standard. These results suggest that methanol extraction of estradiol may prove useful in situations where estradiol occurs at concentration levels of ≥5.0 pg/mL, concentrations of great clinical significance in the detection and treatment of breast cancer.