Immunotherapy with IgY Antibodies toward Outer Membrane Protein F Protects Burned Mice against Pseudomonas aeruginosa InfectionRead the full article
Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.
Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.
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Use of Chlorogenic Acid against Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications
Chlorogenic acid (CA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in human plant-based diets. CA is the main component of many traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and in recent years, it has been found to have hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other pharmacological properties. Specifically, CA relieves the effects of, and prevents, diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition, CA is also beneficial against complications arising from DM, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Herein, we review the use of CA in the prevention and treatment of DM and its complications, providing a background for further research and medical uses.
Expression Levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC in Prostate Cancer with Taking into Account the Histological Grade according to Gleason Scale in Comparison to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: In Search of New Therapeutic Options
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor and the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men in the world. The most common types of tumors are adenocarcinomas. Prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer. The incidence increases with age. Evaluation of proinflammatory factors such as IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC expression makes it possible to assess the impact of inflammatory process on progression of PCa. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the histological material of PCa divided into few groups using the Gleason score. Studies were carried out on archival tissue material in the form of paraffin blocks of 40 men with PCa after radical prostatectomy. The control group was composed of 10 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The material was obtained by the transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Immunohistochemistry was performed on prepared material using specific primary antibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC. Expression of the antibody to be examined using light microscopy and the Remmele-Stegner score (IRS) in cancer staining was then evaluated. Expression of IL-17 RA was not shown in a group of patients with PCa and in the control group. In the group of patients with Gleason score 8 and 9 PCa, the expression of IL-17A was higher compared to that of IL-17F. In addition, in PCa with an increased grade of Gleason scale, a decrease in the expression of the study inflammatory parameters was found. The inflammatory process has an impact on PCa. A study on IL-17 may become a starting point for further research on an attempt to use, for example, immunotherapy in PCa.
The Evolution of Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy against HIV-1 Infection: Improvements and Outlook
Dendritic cells (DC) are key phagocytic cells that play crucial roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). By processing and presenting pathogen-derived antigens, dendritic cells initiate a directed response against infected cells. They activate the adaptive immune system upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on infected cells. During the course of HIV-1 infection, a successful adaptive (cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell) response is necessary for preventing the progression and spread of infection in a variety of cells. Dendritic cells have thus been recognized as a valuable tool in the development of immunotherapeutic approaches and vaccines effective against HIV-1. The advancements in dendritic cell vaccines in cancers have paved the way for applications of this form of immunotherapy to HIV-1 infection. Clinical trials with patients infected with HIV-1 who are well-suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (ART) were recently performed to assess the efficacy of DC vaccines, with the goal of mounting an HIV-1 antigen-specific T-cell response, ideally to clear infection and eliminate the need for long-term ART. This review summarizes and compares methods and efficacies of a number of DC vaccine trials utilizing autologous dendritic cells loaded with HIV-1 antigens. The potential for advancement and novel strategies of improving efficacy of this type of immunotherapy is also discussed.
Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction Ameliorates Allergic Rhinitis in Rats by Regulating the Gut Microbiota and Th17/Treg Balance
Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction (MFXD), a Chinese traditional herbal formulation, has been used to treat allergic rhinitis (AR) in China for centuries. However, the mechanism underlying its effect on AR is unclear. This study investigated the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of MFXD on AR. Ovalbumin-induced AR rat models were established, which were then treated with MFXD for 14 days. Symptom scores of AR were calculated. The structure of the gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content in rat stool and serum was determined by GC-MS. Inflammatory and immunological responses were assessed by histopathology, ELISA, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Our study demonstrated that MFXD reduced the symptom scores of AR and serum IgE and histamine levels. MFXD treatment restored the diversity of the gut microbiota: it increased the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and decreased the abundance of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. MFXD treatment also increased SCFA content, including that of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Additionally, MFXD administration downregulated the number of Th17 cells and the levels of the Th17-related cytokines IL-17 and RORγt. By contrast, there was an increase in the number of Treg cells and the levels of the Treg-related cytokines IL-10 and Foxp3. MFXD and butyrate increased the levels of ZO-1 in the colon. This study indicated MFXD exerts therapeutic effects against AR, possibly by regulating the gut microbial composition and Th17/Treg balance.
Tumor-Derived Exosomes in Immunosuppression and Immunotherapy
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are involved in cancer development, metastasis, and disease progression. They can modulate angiogenesis to elevate the malignant degree of tumor cells. TEX carry immunosuppressive factors affecting the antitumor activities of immune cells. Tumor cells as well as immune cells secrete immunologically active exosomes which affect intercellular communication, antigen presentation, activation of immune cells, and immune surveillance. Cell proliferation and immune response suppression create a favorable microenvironment for tumor. TEX can inhibit immune cell proliferation, induce apoptosis of activated CD8+ Teffs, suppress NK cell activity, interfere with monocyte differentiation, and promote Treg as well as MDSC expansion. Exosomes of microenvironment cells may also contribute to the development of drug resistance in cancer therapy. An important role of TEX in modulating the sensitivity of tumor cells to immunotherapy is a promising area of research to make the cancer therapy more successful.
Quercetin Suppresses AOM/DSS-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis through Its Anti-Inflammation Effects in Mice
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of tumor-related deaths worldwide. In this study, we explored the in vivo effects of quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols with antioxidant effects, on colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS). Thirty mice were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group, the AOM/DSS group, and the quercetin+AOM/DSS group. CRC was induced by AOM injection and a solution of 2% DSS in the drinking water. In the AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer mice model, quercetin treatment dramatically reduced the number and size of colon tumors. In addition, quercetin significantly restored the leukocyte counts by decreasing the inflammation caused by AOM/DSS. We also observed that the expression of oxidative stress markers, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD), and glutathione (GSH), could be reduced by quercetin, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory function of quercetin comes from its antioxidant effect. Moreover, potential biomarkers were identified with serum metabolite profiling. Increased levels of 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-aminobutyrate, and 2-oxobutyrate and decreased levels of gentian violet, indole-3-methyl acetate, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, indoxyl sulfate, and indoxyl were also found in the AOM/DSS-treated mice. However, quercetin treatment successfully decreased the levels of 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-aminobutyrate, 2-oxobutyrate, endocannabinoids, and sphinganine and increased the levels of gentian violet, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, indoxyl sulfate, and indoxyl. Together, our data demonstrated that quercetin could maintain relatively potent antitumor activities against colorectal cancer in vivo through its anti-inflammation effect.