Epitope-Based Chicken-Derived Novel Anti-PAD2 Monoclonal Antibodies Inhibit CitrullinationRead the full article
Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.
Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.
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Macrophage Polarization in the Skin Lesion Caused by Neotropical Species of Leishmania sp
Macrophages play important roles in the innate and acquired immune responses against Leishmania parasites. Depending on the subset and activation status, macrophages may eliminate intracellular parasites; however, these host cells also can offer a safe environment for Leishmania replication. In this sense, the fate of the parasite may be influenced by the phenotype of the infected macrophage, linked to the subtype of classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. In the present study, M1 and M2 macrophage subsets were analyzed by double-staining immunohistochemistry in skin biopsies from patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis ,and L. (L.) infantum chagasi. High number of M1 macrophages was detected in nonulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL) caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi (, cells/mm2). On the other side, high density of M2 macrophages was observed in the skin lesions of patients with anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL) (, ), followed by cases of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by L. (L.) amazonensis (, ), L. (V.) panamensis (, ), and L. (V.) braziliensis (, ); however, low density of M2 macrophages was observed in NUCL. The data presented herein show the polarization of macrophages in skin lesions caused by different Leishmania species that may be related with the outcome of the disease.
Long-Term Immunological and Virological Outcomes in Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Southern Ethiopia
Purpose. To determine immunological and virological failure and associated factors among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus receiving antiretroviral treatments at Hawassa University Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 HIV-infected children from July 1 to December 1, 2019. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and review of patient records. Blood samples for viral load and CD4 count were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Significance group comparison was done by the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to select significant factors of the variability between groups. Results. A total of 273 children, between the age ranges of 1 to 14 years, were included. Of these, 139 (50.9%) and 134 (49.1%) were males and females, respectively. Children from the rural area were almost five times more vulnerable for virological and immunological failure than those children from the urban area (, (1.276-8.815), ). The overall viral load suppression was 196 (71.8%) with a good adherence of 226 (82.9%). Nonsuppressed HIV viral load was found to be 77 (28.2%) which had two times more viral load copies (, (1.21–2.66), ) when compared to those who had suppressed viral load copies. The proportions of children who had immunological nonresponse were 45.6% (21 out of 46), 30.4% (14 out of 46), and 23.9% (11 out of 46) among children with baseline CD4 of <200, 201-500, and >500 cells/μl, respectively. Unimproved outcomes among females were noted for immunological and virological failure in this study (, (1.038-3.481), ). Conclusion. In conclusion, the highly active antiretroviral treatment appeared highly effective in terms of immunological and virological long-term outcomes. However, viral suppression (71.8%) in our study was far apart from the UNAIDS target of 90% in 2020. For that reason, strengthening adherence counseling and early initiation of HAART is important.
Effect of Prophylactic Vaccination with the Membrane-Bound Acid Phosphatase Gene of Leishmania mexicana in the Murine Model of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Current treatments for leishmaniasis are long, toxic, and expensive and are not available in some endemic regions. Attempts to develop an effective vaccine are feasible, but no vaccine is in active clinical use. In this study, the LmxMBA gene of Leishmania mexicana was selected as a possible vaccine candidate using the reverse vaccinology approach, and the prophylactic effect generated by DNA vaccination with this gene in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis was evaluated. The results showed that prophylactic vaccination with pVAX1::LmxMBA significantly reduced the size of the lesion and the parasitic load on the footpad, compared to the control groups. At a histological level, a smaller number of parasites were evident in the dermis, as well as the absence of connective tissue damage. Mice immunized with plasmid pVAX1::LmxMBA induced immunity characterized by an increase in the ratio and a higher rate of lymphocyte proliferation. In this study, immunization with the plasmid promoted an improvement in the macroscopic and microscopic clinical manifestations of the experimental infection by L. mexicana, with a T helper 1 response characterized by an ratio and high lymphoproliferative response. These findings support immunization with the plasmid pVAX1::LmxMBA as a preventive strategy against cutaneous infection of L. mexicana.
Biomarkers and Their Possible Functions in the Intestinal Microenvironment of Chagasic Megacolon: An Overview of the (Neuro)inflammatory Process
The association between inflammatory processes and intestinal neuronal destruction during the progression of Chagasic megacolon is well established. However, many other components play essential roles, both in the long-term progression and control of the clinical status of patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Components such as neuronal subpopulations, enteric glial cells, mast cells and their proteases, and homeostasis-related proteins from several organic systems (serotonin and galectins) are differentially involved in the progression of Chagasic megacolon. This review is aimed at revealing the characteristics of the intestinal microenvironment found in Chagasic megacolon by using different types of already used biomarkers. Information regarding these components may provide new therapeutic alternatives and improve the understanding of the association between T. cruzi infection and immune, endocrine, and neurological system changes.
Ion Transport Modulators Differentially Modulate Inflammatory Responses in THP-1-Derived Macrophages
Ion transport modulators are most commonly used to treat various noncommunicable diseases including diabetes and hypertension. They are also known to bind to receptors on various immune cells, but the immunomodulatory properties of most ion transport modulators have not been fully elucidated. We assessed the effects of thirteen FDA-approved ion transport modulators, namely, ambroxol HCl, amiloride HCl, diazoxide, digoxin, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, metformin, omeprazole, pantoprazole, phenytoin, verapamil, drug X, and drug Y on superoxide production, nitric oxide production, and cytokine expression by THP-1-derived macrophages that had been stimulated with ethanol-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Ambroxol HCl, diazoxide, digoxin, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, metformin, pantoprazole, phenytoin, verapamil, and drug Y had an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production, while all the test drugs had an inhibitory effect on superoxide production. Amiloride HCl, diazoxide, digoxin, furosemide, phenytoin, verapamil, drug X, and drug Y enhanced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Unlike most immunomodulatory compounds currently in clinical use, most of the test drugs inhibited some inflammatory processes while promoting others. Ion pumps and ion channels could therefore serve as targets for more selective immunomodulatory agents which do not cause overt immunosuppression.
Mapping the Human Leukocyte Antigen Diversity among Croatian Regions: Implication in Transplantation
In the present study, HLA allele and haplotype frequencies were studied using the HLA data of 9277 Croatian unrelated individuals, typed using high-resolution methods for the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci. The total numbers of observed alleles were 47 for HLA-A, 88 for HLA-B, 34 for HLA-C, and 53 for HLA-DRB1. HLA-A02:01 (29.5%), B51:01 (10.5%), C04:01 (15.8%), and DRB116:01 (10.4%) were the most frequent alleles in the Croatian general population. The three most frequent haplotypes were HLA-A01:01~C07:01~B08:01~DRB103:01 (4.7%), HLA-A03:01~C07:02~B07:02~DRB115:01 (1.7%), and HLA-A02:01~C07:01~B18:01~DRB111:04 (1.5%). Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between national and regional data, and differences were observed, particularly in the North Croatia region. The data has potential use in refining donor recruitment strategies for national registries of volunteer hematopoietic stem cell donors, solid organ allocation schemes, and the design of future disease and anthropological studies.