Autoimmune Encephalitis in Tunisia: Report of a Pediatric CohortRead the full article
Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.
Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.
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Upregulation of lnc-ZNF281 Inhibits the Progression of Glioma via the AKT/GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the roles and potential underlying mechanisms of long noncoding RNA lnc-ZNF281 in glioma. We performed qRT-PCR to detect the expression levels of lnc-ZNF281 in glioma tissues. The effects of lnc-ZNF281 on the proliferative and migrative abilities of T98G and HS683 glioma cells were examined by cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, wound-healing assay, and transwell assay. Also, the effects of lnc-ZNF281 on AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway were analyzed. The results showed that the expression of lnc-ZNF281 in glioma tissues was decreased compared with normal tissues. lnc-ZNF281 overexpression inhibited the proliferative and migrative abilities of glioma cells, while lnc-ZNF281 knockdown obtained the opposite findings. Besides, overexpression of lnc-ZNF281 in glioma cells inactivated the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, β-catenin activation reversed the suppressive effects of lnc-ZNF281 on glioma cells. Taken together, lnc-ZNF281 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and migration via AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway and may serve as a potential target for glioma treatment.
Neuroprotective Effects of Asparagus officinalis Stem Extract in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein
To mimic Alzheimer’s disease, transgenic mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were used in this study. We hypothesize that the neuroprotective effects of ETAS®50, a standardized extract of Asparagus officinalis stem produced by Amino Up Co., Ltd. (Sapporo, Japan), are linked to the inhibition of the apoptosis cascade through an enhancement of the stress-response proteins: heat shock proteins (HSPs). APP-overexpressing mice (double-transgenic APP and PS1 mouse strains with a 129s6 background), ages 6-8 weeks old, and weighing 20-24 grams were successfully bred in our laboratory. The animals were divided into 5 groups. APP-overexpressing mice and wild-type (WT) mice were pretreated with ETAS®50 powder (50% elemental ETAS and 50% destrin) at 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight. Saline, the vehicle for ETAS®50, was administered in APP-overexpressing mice and WT mice. ETAS®50 and saline were administered by gavage daily for 1 month. Cognitive assessments, using the Morris Water Maze, demonstrated that memory was recovered following ETAS®50 treatment as compared to nontreated APP mice. At euthanization, the brain was removed and HSPs, amyloid β, tau proteins, and caspase-3 were evaluated through immunofluorescence staining with the appropriate antibodies. Our data indicate that APP mice have cognitive impairment along with elevated amyloid β, tau proteins, and caspase-3. ETAS®50 restored cognitive function in these transgenic mice, increased both HSP70 and HSP27, and attenuated pathogenic level of amyloid β, tau proteins, and caspsase-3 leading to neuroprotection. Our results were confirmed with a significant increase in HSP70 gene expression in the hippocampus.
Blocking the Hepatic Branch of the Vagus Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting the Expression of IL-22 in the Liver
Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable process during liver transplantation, hemorrhagic shock, resection, and other liver surgeries. It is an important cause of postoperative liver dysfunction and increased medical costs. The protective effects of the vagus nerve on hepatic IRI have been reported, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. We established a hepatic vagotomy (Hv) mouse model to study the effect of the vagus on liver IRI and to explore the underlying mechanism. Liver IRI was more serious in mice with Hv, which showed higher serum ALT and AST activities and histopathological changes. Further experiments confirmed that Hv significantly downregulated the expression of IL-22 protein and mRNA in the liver, blocking the activation of the STAT3 pathway. The STAT3 pathway in the livers of Hv mice was significantly activated, and liver injury was clearly alleviated after treatment with exogenous IL-22 recombinant protein. In conclusion, Hv can aggravate hepatic IRI, and its mechanism may be related to inhibition of IL-22 expression and downregulation of the STAT3 pathway in the liver.
miR-183-5p Is a Potential Molecular Marker of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Objective. To investigate microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and identify the valuable miRNA biomarkers in diagnosing and monitoring SLE. Methods. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed to assess miRNA amounts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from four SLE cases and four healthy controls. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was carried out for validating candidate miRNAs in 32 SLE cases and 32 healthy controls. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was completed to evaluate diagnostic performance. Finally, the associations of candidate miRNAs with various characteristics of SLE were analyzed. Results. A total of 157 miRNAs were upregulated, and 110 miRNAs were downregulated in PBMCs from SLE cases in comparison to healthy controls, of which the increase of miR-183-5p and decrease of miR-374b-3p were validated by qPCR and both showed good diagnostic performance for SLE diagnosis. Besides, miR-183-5p expression levels displayed a positive association with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and anti-dsDNA antibody amounts. Conclusion. Our data indicated that miR-183-5p is a promising biomarker of SLE.
Increased TNF-α Initiates Cytoplasmic Vacuolization in Whole Blood Coculture with Dengue Virus
During the acute febrile phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection, viremia can cause severe systemic immune responses accompanied by hematologic disorders. This study investigated the potential induction and mechanism of the cytopathic effects of DENV on peripheral blood cells ex vivo. At one day postinfection, there was viral nonstructural protein NS1 but no further virus replication measured in the whole blood culture. Notably, DENV exposure caused significant vacuolization in monocytic phagocytes. With a minor change in the complete blood cell count, except for a minor increase in neutrophils and a significant decrease in monocytes, the immune profiling assay identified several changes, particularly a significant reduction in CD14-positive monocytes as well as CD11c-positive dendritic cells. Abnormal production of TNF-α was highly associated with the induction of vacuolization. Manipulating TNF-α expression resulted in cytopathogenic effects. These results demonstrate the potential hematological damage caused by ex vivo DENV-induced TNF-α.
Epitope-Based Peptide Vaccine Design against Fructose Bisphosphate Aldolase of Candida glabrata: An Immunoinformatics Approach
Background. Candida glabrata is a human opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening systemic infections. Although there are multiple effective vaccines against fungal infections and some of these vaccines are engaged in different stages of clinical trials, none of them have yet been approved by the FDA. Aim. Using immunoinformatics approach to predict the most conserved and immunogenic B- and T-cell epitopes from the fructose bisphosphate aldolase (Fba1) protein of C. glabrata. Material and Method. 13 C. glabrata fructose bisphosphate aldolase protein sequences (361 amino acids) were retrieved from NCBI and presented in several tools on the IEDB server for prediction of the most promising epitopes. Homology modeling and molecular docking were performed. Result. The promising B-cell epitopes were AYFKEH, VDKESLYTK, and HVDKESLYTK, while the promising peptides which have high affinity to MHC I binding were AVHEALAPI, KYFKRMAAM, QTSNGGAAY, RMAAMNQWL, and YFKEHGEPL. Two peptides, LFSSHMLDL and YIRSIAPAY, were noted to have the highest affinity to MHC class II that interact with 9 alleles. The molecular docking revealed that the epitopes QTSNGGAAY and LFSSHMLDL have the lowest binding energy to MHC molecules. Conclusion. The epitope-based vaccines predicted by using immunoinformatics tools have remarkable advantages over the conventional vaccines in that they are more specific, less time consuming, safe, less allergic, and more antigenic. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments are needed to prove the effectiveness of the best candidate’s epitopes (QTSNGGAAY and LFSSHMLDL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has predicted B- and T-cell epitopes from the Fba1 protein by using in silico tools in order to design an effective epitope-based vaccine against C. glabrata.