Journal of Immunology Research
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate45%
Submission to final decision61 days
Acceptance to publication37 days
CiteScore5.600
Journal Citation Indicator0.600
Impact Factor4.818

Article of the Year 2020

Toll-Like Receptors in Natural Killer Cells and Their Application for Immunotherapy

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 Journal profile

Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

Latest Articles

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Review Article

Self-Centered Function of Adaptive Immunity in Regulation of Immune Responses and in Tolerance

The search for common mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions has crystalized the concept of continuous dual resetting of the immune repertoire (CDR) as a basic principle of the immune system function. Consequently, outlined was the first dynamic comprehensive picture of the immune system function. The goal of this study is to elaborate on regulation of immune responses and mechanisms of tolerance, particularly focusing on adaptive immunity. It is well established that the T/B cell repertoire is selected and maintained based on interactions with self. However, their activation also requires interaction with a self-specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) “code,” i.e., the context of MHC molecules. Therefore, not only repertoire selection and maintenance but also the T/B cell activation and function are self-centered. Thus, adaptive effectors may be primarily focused on the state of self and maintenance of integrity of the self, and only to a certain degree on elimination of the foreign. Examples of such function are used immunologically that poorly understood MHC-disparate settings typical for transplantation and pregnancy. Transplantation represents an extreme setting of strong systemic compartment-level adaptive/MHC-restricted immune responses. Described are clinically identified conditions for operational tolerance of MHC-disparate tissues/living systems in allotransplantation, which are in line with the CDR-proposed self-centered regulatory role of T/B cells. In contrast, normal pregnancy is coexistence of semiallogeneic or entirely allogeneic mother and fetus, but without alloreactivity akin to transplantation settings. Presented data support the notion that maintenance of pregnancy is a process that relies predominantly on innate/MHC-independent immune mechanisms. By the inception of hemotrophic stage of pregnancy (second and third trimester), both mother and child are individual living systems, with established adaptive immune repertoires. Although mother-fetus interactions at that point become indirect systemic compartment-level communications, their interactions throughout gestation remain within the innate realm of molecular-level adaptations.

Review Article

Prognostic Role of TIGIT Expression in Patients with Solid Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

Background. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified immunosuppressive receptor. The expression levels of TIGIT affect the prognosis of patients with solid tumors. To fully comprehend the role of TIGIT on the prognosis of patients with solid tumors, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods. We performed an online search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science (WOS), and MEDLINE databases for literature published till March 31, 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the literature, and Stata 16.0 and Engauge Digitizer 4.1 software were used for data analysis. Results. Our literature search identified eight papers comprising 1426 patients with solid tumors. Increased expression of TIGIT was associated with poor prognosis. High expression of TIGIT was a risk factor for overall survival (OS) {, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.26, 2.20], } and progression-free survival (PFS) (, 95% CI [1.15, 1.81], ). We performed subgroup analysis to explore the source of heterogeneity, colorectal cancer (, 95% CI [0.23, 18.82], ), lung cancer (, 95% CI [0.96, 1.72], ), esophageal cancer (, 95% CI [1.20, 2.40], ), and other cancers (, 95% CI [1.25, 2.68], ). In addition to cancer type, expression location, sample size, and different statistical analysis methods are also considered the possible causes of heterogeneity between studies. Funnel plots suggested no publication bias for OS (), and Egger’s test supported this conclusion (). Conclusion. TIGIT expression was associated with OS and PFS in patients with solid tumors. Patients with elevated TIGIT expression have a shorter OS and PFS, and TIGIT expression could be a novel biomarker for prognosis prediction and a valuable therapeutic target for solid tumors.

Review Article

Role of Vitamin D in Systemic Sclerosis: A Systematic Literature Review

Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune condition defined by a complex pathobiology, comprising excessive fibrosis of skin and internal organs, peripheral vasculopathy with endothelial cell dysfunction, inadequate vascular repair and neovascularization, and aberrant immunity. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with pleiotropic effects beyond its traditional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Since vitamin D has immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, and antifibrotic properties, it could potentially interfere with SSc pathogenesis. Suboptimal vitamin D levels are classically recognized in scleroderma, irrespective of clinical and serological phenotype. Aim. This systematic review is aimed at investigating and clarifying the role of vitamin D in SSc and emphasizing the association of vitamin D status with different clinical settings. Methods and Results. A systematic online search was performed, using PubMed databases to collect articles on the topic of vitamin D in SSc. The final analysis included 40 eligible articles. Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D is common in SSc patients and could be associated with clinical and serologic patterns of the disease. Intervention for low serum vitamin D levels in SSc pathogenesis remains controversial, as well as the significance of vitamin D supplementation in such patients.

Review Article

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy for Bone Metastases: Specific Microenvironment and Current Situation

The treatment of bone metastases is a thorny issue. Immunotherapy may be one of the few hopes for patients with unresectable bone metastases. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the most commonly used immunotherapy drugs currently. In this review, the characteristics and interaction of bone metastases and their immune microenvironment were systematically discussed, and the relevant research progress of the immunological mechanism of tumor bone metastasis was reviewed. On this basis, we expounded the clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors for bone metastasis of common tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, melanoma, and breast cancer. Then, the deficiencies and limitations in current researches were summarized. In-depth basic research on bone metastases and optimization of clinical treatment is needed.

Research Article

Elevated Expression of the Long Noncoding RNA MAFTRR in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Background. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent an important novel class of noncoding RNA molecule greater than 200 nucleotides that play a key role in the regulation of autoimmune diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that MAFTRR (MAF transcriptional regulator RNA) regulated Th1 cells differentiation by inhibiting the expression of MAF in activated CD4+ T cells. However, the effect of MAFTRR on the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) remains unclear. This research was aimed at investigating the expression of MAFTRR in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) as well as the correlation between MAFTRR and Th1 cells. Methods. Thirty-eight HT patients and thirty-eight healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The proportion of Th1 cells and CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these specimens was determined by flow cytometric analysis. The transcript levels of MAFTRR, MAF, and IFNG in PBMCs and thyroid glands were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the potential value of MAFTRR in the HT patients. Results. We found that the proportion of circulating Th1 cells and the transcript levels of IFNG were increased in peripheral blood of the HT patients. The transcript levels of MAFTRR were significantly increased in the HT patients and positively correlated with the percentage of Th1 cells and serum levels of antithyroglobulin antibody and antithyroperoxidase antibody. The transcript levels of MAF, a transcription factor that inhibits Th1 cells activity and IFN-γ production, were attenuated in PBMCs from the HT patients. The transcript levels of IFNG had positive and inverse correlations with MAFTRR and MAF expression in PBMCs from the HT patients, respectively. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation between upregulated MAFTRR expression and augmented IFNG expression was revealed in thyroid tissues from the HT patients. ROC curve suggested that MAFTRR could potentially differentiate the HT patients from healthy controls. Conclusion. MAFTRR is significantly augmented in the HT patients and may contribute to the pathogenic role of the Th1 cells response in HT.

Research Article

A Helminth-Derived Chitinase Structurally Similar to Mammalian Chitinase Displays Immunomodulatory Properties in Inflammatory Lung Disease

Immunomodulation of airway hyperreactivity by excretory-secretory (ES) products of the first larval stage (L1) of the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris suis is reported by us and others. Here, we aimed to identify the proteins accounting for the modulatory effects of the T. suis L1 ES proteins and studied six selected T. suis L1 proteins for their immunomodulatory efficacy in a murine OVA-induced allergic airway disease model. In particular, an enzymatically active T. suis chitinase mediated amelioration of clinical signs of airway hyperreactivity, primarily associated with suppression of eosinophil recruitment into the lung, the associated chemokines, and increased numbers of RELMα+ interstitial lung macrophages. While there is no indication of T. suis chitinase directly interfering with dendritic cell activation or antigen presentation to CD4 T cells, treatment of allergic mice with the worm chitinase influenced the hosts’ own chitinase activity in the inflamed lung. The three-dimensional structure of the T. suis chitinase as determined by high-resolution X-ray crystallography revealed high similarities to mouse acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) but a unique ability of T. suis chitinase to form dimers. Our data indicate that the structural similarities between the parasite and host chitinase contribute to the disease-ameliorating effect of the helminth-derived chitinase on allergic lung inflammation.

Journal of Immunology Research
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate45%
Submission to final decision61 days
Acceptance to publication37 days
CiteScore5.600
Journal Citation Indicator0.600
Impact Factor4.818
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.