Journal of Immunology Research
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Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision63 days
Acceptance to publication26 days
CiteScore7.100
Journal Citation Indicator0.580
Impact Factor4.493

Article of the Year 2020

Toll-Like Receptors in Natural Killer Cells and Their Application for Immunotherapy

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 Journal profile

Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

Hypoxia Inhibits Osteogenesis and Promotes Adipogenesis of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes via Upregulation of Leptin in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Hypoxia is associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia in the osteogenesis or adipogenesis of RA-FLSs. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to profile gene expression in the datasets of GSE21959, GSE32006, and GSE55875, and flow cytometry was performed for FLS characterization, while Alizarin Redand Oil Red O staining for osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation of FLSs, respectively. RNA interference leptin knockdown was used to determine the role of leptin in the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of RA-FLSs, and the expression of osteogenic and adipogenic markers was quantified by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. FLSs exhibited a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like phenotype and we observed a limited self-renewal capacity in RA-FLSs compared to that in MSCs, but it was still greater than osteoarthritis (OA)-FLSs. Hypoxia did not change the RA-FLS MSC-like phenotype but inhibited the osteogenic differentiation and promoted the adipogenic differentiation of RA-FLSs. From the bioinformatics analysis ofGSE21959, GSE32006, and GSE55875 datasets, we found leptin, the only perturbed hypoxia-mediated upregulated gene across the three profiled datasets. Leptin knockdown in RA-FLSs reversed the hypoxia-mediated reduction of osteogenesis and hypoxia-mediated enhancement of adipogenesis by elevated expression of osteogenic markers and reduced expression of adipogenic markers, respectively. Therefore, hypoxia-leptin regulation of the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of RA-FLSs advances our understanding of RA pathogenesis, meanwhile also provides opportunities for future therapeutic intervention of RA.

Research Article

Pentraxin 3 Facilitates Shrimp-Allergic Responses in IgE-Activated Mast Cells

Background. Since food avoidance is currently the only way to prevent allergic reactions to shrimp, a better understanding of molecular events in the induction and progression of allergy, including food allergy, is needed for developing strategies to inhibit allergic responses. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is rapidly produced directly from inflammatory or damaged tissues and is involved in acute immunoinflammatory responses. However, the role of PTX3 in the development of immediate IgE-mediated shrimp allergy remains unknown. Methods. Wild-type BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally and were challenged with shrimp extract. Serum IgE and PTX3 levels were analyzed. RBL-2H3 cells were stimulated with either dinitrophenyl (DNP) or serum of shrimp-allergic mice, and markers of degranulation, proinflammatory mediators, and phosphorylation of signal proteins were analyzed. We further examined the effect of PTX3 in shrimp extract-induced allergic responses in vitro and in vivo. Results. Mice with shrimp allergy had increased PTX3 levels in the serum and small intestine compared with healthy mice. PTX3 augmented degranulation, the production of proinflammatory mediators, and activation of the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in mast cells upon DNP stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) was elevated in PTX3-mediated mast cell activation. Finally, the PTX3 inhibitor RI37 could attenuate PTX3-induced degranulation, proinflammatory mediator expression, and phosphorylation of the Akt and MAPK signaling. Conclusions. The results suggested that PTX3 can facilitate allergic responses. Our data provide new insight to demonstrate that PTX3 is a cause of allergic inflammation and that RI37 can serve as a therapeutic agent in shrimp allergy.

Research Article

Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features of Small to Big Satellite Nevus Uncover the Nevogenesis of Large/Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

The nevogenesis of large/giant congenital melanocytic nevus (lgCMN) is a complex biological process including several integral prenatal stages. Limited by ethical concerns, the debate of whether lgCMN develops from the epidermis to the dermis or in the opposite direction remains controversial. With the present study of the accompanying satellite nevi, we tend to support that lgCMN develops from epidermis to dermis. The satellite nevi were divided into 3 groups: big (diameter >10 mm), medium (>5 mm but ≤10 mm), and small (≤5 mm). Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining (SOX10, Ki67, and p16) were performed to compare the nevocyte infiltration depth as well as the positively stained rates among these satellite nevi. Compared to big satellite nevi, less deeply the nevocytes infiltrated the dermis, as well as more cells expressed SOX10 and Ki67 in the epidermis and fewer cells expressed p16 in the dermis of small satellite nevi. Additionally, two specimens were obtained from each of 4 patients who underwent serial resections of lgCMN at an average interval of 1.75 years to examine the histopathological changes. In the present study, satellite nevi of different sizes represent different stages of lgCMN from early to late, deepening our comprehension of the sequential stages of lgCMN nevogenesis. Initially, abnormal nevocytes seeded, proliferated, and spread along the epidermis. At rete ridges that protrude from the papillary dermis within the epidermis, some nevocytes formed nests and gradually penetrated into the dermis. Eventually, the nevocytes infiltrated the dermis and entered a homeostatic state. This study provides new evidence supporting the theory of epidermal-to-dermal nevogenesis in lgCMN.

Research Article

Pretreatment Pan-Immune-Inflammation Value Efficiently Predicts Survival Outcomes in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Receiving Radiotherapy and Temozolomide

Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive significance of pretreatment pan-immune-inflammation value (PIV) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who received postsurgical radiation (RT) and concurrent plus adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods. The outcomes of 204 newly diagnosed GBM patients were analyzed retrospectively. Each eligible patient’s PIV was calculated using the findings of peripheral blood platelet (P), monocyte (M), neutrophil (N), and lymphocyte (L) counts obtained on the first day of therapy: . We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to discover the ideal cutoff values for PIV concerning progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes. The primary and secondary end-points were the OS and PFS divergences across the PIV groups. Results. In ROC curve analysis, the optimal PIV cutoff was 385, which substantially interacted with PFS and OS results and categorized patients into low PIV (L-PIV; ) and high PIV (H-PIV; ) groups. Comparative survival analyses showed that the patients in the H-PIV group had significantly shorter median PFS (6.0 vs. 16.6 months; ) and OS (11.1 vs. 22.9 months; ) durations than those in the L-PIV group. The results of multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated an independent and significant connection between an H-PIV measure and shorter PFS and OS outcomes. Conclusions. The novel PIV was able to independently stratify newly diagnosed GBM patients into two groups with fundamentally different PFS and OS outcomes following RT and concurrent plus adjuvant TMZ.

Research Article

Intranasal Vaccination with rePcrV Protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Generates Lung Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are immune sentinels that bear a key role in the local immune system and rapidly respond to infection. Our previous studies showed that mucosal immunization via intranasal pathways was more effective than intramuscular route. However, the mechanism of enhanced protective immunity remains unclear. Here, we formulated a Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine composed of type III secretion protein PcrV from P. aeruginosa and curdlan adjuvant and then administered by the intranasal route. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining showed that the ratio of CD44+CD62L-CD69+CD4+ TRM cells induced by this vaccine was significantly increased, and IL-17A production was notably enhanced. Further analysis revealed that vaccinated mice can protect against the P. aeruginosa challenge even after administration with FTY720 treatment. What is more, our results showed that CD4+ TRM might be involved in the recruitment of neutrophils and provided partial protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these data demonstrated that CD4+ TRM cells were elicited in lung tissues after immunization with rePcrV and contributed to protective immunity. Furthermore, it provided novel strategies for the development of vaccines for P. aeruginosa and other respiratory-targeted vaccines.

Research Article

Serum sPD1 and sPDL1 as Biomarkers for Evaluating the Immune State of Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

A large proportion of cancer patients benefit from immune checkpoint therapy, while few studies focused on the relationship between soluble PD1 (sPD1) and soluble PDL1 (sPDL1) in serum and immune status of patients. ILC2 and M2 were confirmed to be related to immunosuppression in tumor patients. To determine whether sPD1 and sPDL1 are correlated with the ratio of ILC2 and M2 is helpful to explore the possibility of using sPD1 and sPDL1 as tumor molecular markers. Our results showed an immune balance toward ILC2 and M2-like monocytes in patients with LUAD compared with healthy controls. Meanwhile, decreased CD4+T and CD8+T cells, as well as elevated PD1+CD8+T cells, were found in patients with LUAD. The relative mRNA expression levels of ILC2- and M2-characteristic cytokines were also upregulated accompanied by decreased mRNA expression levels of ILC1- and M1-characteristic cytokines in patients with LUAD compared to healthy controls. Moreover, elevated ILC2 frequencies as well as the amount of IL-13 were positively correlated with the amount of sPD1, however, there was no correlation between them and sPDL1. These results suggested that sPD1 and sPDL1 can serve as diagnostic markers to predict the immune state of cancer patients.

Journal of Immunology Research
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision63 days
Acceptance to publication26 days
CiteScore7.100
Journal Citation Indicator0.580
Impact Factor4.493
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.