Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Toxocariasis among General Population in Southwest Iran: Implications on the One Health ApproachRead the full article
Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.
Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
KIF26B and CREB3L1 Derived from Immunoscore Could Inhibit the Progression of Ovarian Cancer
Background. Ovarian cancer (OV) is characteristic of high incidence rate and fatality rate in the malignant tumors of female reproductive system. Researches on pathogenesis and therapeutic targets for OV need to be continued. This study mainly analyzed the immune-related pathogenesis and discovered the key immunotherapy targets for OV. Methods. WGCNA was used for excavating hub gene modules and hub genes related to the immunity of OV. Enrichment analysis was aimed to analyze the related pathways of hub gene modules. Biological experiments were used for exploring the effect of hub genes on SKOV3 cells. Results. We identified two hub gene modules related to the immunoscore of OV and found that these genes in the modules were related to the extracellular matrix and viral infections. At the same time, we also discovered six hub genes related to the immunity of OV. Among them, KIF26B and CREB3L1 can affect the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SKOV3 cells by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Conclusions. The local infection or inflammation of ovarian may affect the immunity of OV. KIF26B and CREB3L1 are expected to be potential targets for the immunotherapy of OV.
Disturbances in the IgG Antibody Profile in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Associated with Maternal Factors
Over the last 20 years, the incidence of vertical HIV transmission has decreased from 25%–42% to less than 1%. Although there are no signs of infection, the health of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants is notoriously affected during the first months of life, with opportunistic infections being the most common disease. Some studies have reported effects on the vertical transfer of antibodies, but little is known about the subclass distribution of these antibodies. We proposed to evaluate the total IgG concentration and its subclasses in HIV+ mothers and HEU pairs and to determine which maternal factors condition their levels. In this study, plasma from 69 HEU newborns, their mothers, and 71 control pairs was quantified via immunoassays for each IgG isotype. Furthermore, we followed the antibody profile of HEUs throughout the first year of life. We showed that mothers present an antibody profile characterized by high concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 but reduced IgG2, and HEU infants are born with an IgG subclass profile similar to that of their maternal pair. Interestingly, this passively transferred profile could remain influenced even during their own antibody production in HEU infants, depending on maternal conditions such as CD4+ T-cell counts and maternal antiretroviral treatment. Our findings indicate that HEU infants exhibit an altered IgG subclass profile influenced by maternal factors, potentially contributing to their increased susceptibility to infections.
Upper Airway Epithelial Tissue Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Immune Signatures Associated with COVID-19 Severity in Ghanaians
The immunological signatures driving the severity of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in Ghanaians remain poorly understood. We performed bulk transcriptome sequencing of nasopharyngeal samples from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected Ghanaians with mild and severe COVID-19, as well as healthy controls to characterize immune signatures at the primary SARS-CoV-2 infection site and identify drivers of disease severity. Generally, a heightened antiviral response was observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected Ghanaians compared with uninfected controls. COVID-19 severity was associated with immune suppression, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, including CRNN, IL1A, S100A7, and IL23A, and activation of pathways involved in keratinocyte proliferation. SAMD9L was among the differentially regulated interferon-stimulated genes in our mild and severe disease cohorts, suggesting that it may play a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. By comparing our data with a publicly available dataset from a non-African (Indians) (GSE166530), an elevated expression of antiviral response-related genes was noted in COVID-19-infected Ghanaians. Overall, the study describes immune signatures driving COVID-19 severity in Ghanaians and identifies immune drivers that could serve as potential prognostic markers for future outbreaks or pandemics. It further provides important preliminary evidence suggesting differences in antiviral response at the upper respiratory interface in sub-Saharan Africans (Ghanaians) and non-Africans, which could be contributing to the differences in disease outcomes. Further studies using larger datasets from different populations will expand on these findings.
RND3 Potentiates Proinflammatory Activation through NOTCH Signaling in Activated Macrophages
Macrophage activation is a complex process with multiple control elements that ensures an adequate response to the aggressor pathogens and, on the other hand, avoids an excess of inflammatory activity that could cause tissue damage. In this study, we have identified RND3, a small GTP-binding protein, as a new element in the complex signaling process that leads to macrophage activation. We show that RND3 expression is transiently induced in macrophages activated through Toll receptors and potentiated by IFN-γ. We also demonstrate that RND3 increases NOTCH signaling in macrophages by favoring NOTCH1 expression and its nuclear activity; however, Rnd3 expression seems to be inhibited by NOTCH signaling, setting up a negative regulatory feedback loop. Moreover, increased RND3 protein levels seem to potentiate NFκB and STAT1 transcriptional activity resulting in increased expression of proinflammatory genes, such as Tnf-α, Irf-1, or Cxcl-10. Altogether, our results indicate that RND3 seems to be a new regulatory element which could control the activation of macrophages, able to fine tune the inflammatory response through NOTCH.
Interleukin-18 Gene Polymorphisms and Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses
This study systematically analyzes the association between interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility. The electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify meta-analyses that included case–control studies reporting IL-18 gene polymorphisms and RA susceptibility. Data were reanalyzed using Review Manager Software 5.1, and Mantel–Haenszel random effects were applied for the five genetic models: allelic, recessive, dominant, homozygote, and heterozygote. The effect size of odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. A total of seven meta-analyses with poor quality were included. The IL-18 polymorphisms -607 A/C, -137 C/G, -920 T/C, and -105 C/A have been reported. With weak evidence, IL-18 -607 A/C polymorphisms were associated with a reduced risk of RA susceptibility using the allele model (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61 − 0.93, ), dominant model (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50 − 0.90, ), homozygote model (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35 − 0.91, ), and heterozygote model (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54 − 0.93, ) in the overall population. IL-18 gene polymorphisms and RA susceptibility are affected by ethnicity: With weak evidence, IL-18 -137 C/G polymorphisms were related to reduce RA susceptibility in the Asian population (allele model: OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40 − 0.88, ; dominant model: OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37 − 0.89, ; heterozygote model: OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38 − 0.94, ). IL-18 -607 A/C gene polymorphisms are a protective factor for RA susceptibility in the overall population, and IL-18 −137 C/G gene polymorphisms are a protective factor for RA susceptibility in the Asian population. Further studies are needed to confirm these results owing to the limitations of the included studies.
PM2.5 Causes Increased Bacterial Invasion by Affecting HBD1 Expression in the Lung
Our research addresses the critical environmental issue of a fine particulate matter (PM2.5), focusing on its association with the increased infection risks. We explored the influence of PM2.5 on human beta-defensin 1 (HBD1), an essential peptide in mucosal immunity found in the airway epithelium. Using C57BL/6J mice and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE), we examined the effects of PM2.5 exposure followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection on HBD1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. The study revealed that PM2.5’s toxicity to epithelial cells and animals varies with time and concentration. Notably, HBE cells exposed to PM2.5 and P. aeruginosa showed increased bacterial invasion and decreased HBD1 expression compared to the cells exposed to P. aeruginosa alone. Similarly, mice studies indicated that combined exposure to PM2.5 and P. aeruginosa significantly reduced survival rates and increased bacterial invasion. These harmful effects, however, were alleviated by administering exogenous HBD1. Furthermore, our findings highlight the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways following PM2.5 exposure. Inhibiting these pathways effectively increased HBD1 expression and diminished bacterial invasion. In summary, our study establishes that PM2.5 exposure intensifies P. aeruginosa invasion in both HBE cells and mouse models, primarily by suppressing HBD1 expression. This effect can be counteracted with exogenous HBD1, with the downregulation mechanism involving the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Our study endeavors to elucidate the pathogenesis of lung infections associated with PM2.5 exposure, providing a novel theoretical basis for the development of prevention and treatment strategies, with substantial clinical significance.