Development and Validation of a Bordetella pertussis Whole-Genome Screening StrategyRead the full article
Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.
Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.
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Characterization of a Complex Mixture of Immunomodulator Peptides Obtained from Autologous Urine
A complex mixture of peptides plays a key role in the regulation of the immune system; different sources as raw materials mainly from animals and vegetables have been reported to provide these extracts. The batch-to-batch product consistency depends on in-process controls established. However, when an immunomodulator is a customized product obtained from the same volunteer who will receive the product to personalize the treatment, the criteria to establish the consistency between volunteers are different. In this sense, it is expected to have the same molecular weight range although the profile of peptide abundance is different. Here, we characterized the peptide profile of three extracts of an immunomodulator obtained from the urine of different volunteers suffering from three different diseases (i.e., allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic rhinopharyngitis), using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The peptides contained in the immunomodulators were stable after six months, stored in a refrigerator. Our results showed a chromatographic profile with the same range of low molecular weight (less than 17 kDa) in all analyzed samples by SEC; these results were also confirmed by MS showing an exact mass spectrum from 3 to 13 kDa. The fact that the peptide profiles were conserved during a six-month period at refrigeration conditions (2 to 8°C) maintaining the quality and stability of the immunomodulator supports the notion that it might be an alternative in the treatment of chronic hypersensibility disorders.
The Role of MicroRNAs in Regulatory T Cells
MicroRNAs are a class of conserved, 20 nt-23 nt long, noncoding small RNAs that inhibit expression of their respective target genes in different cell types. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subpopulation of T cells that negatively regulate immune responses, which is essential to immune homeostasis. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs play an important role in the proliferation, differentiation, and functions of Treg. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the roles of microRNAs in Treg and their dysregulation in immune-related diseases. This ongoing research continues to expand the understanding of Treg regulation and the mechanisms of immune disorders.
Multicentre Harmonisation of a Six-Colour Flow Cytometry Panel for Naïve/Memory T Cell Immunomonitoring
Background. Personalised medicine in oncology needs standardised immunological assays. Flow cytometry (FCM) methods represent an essential tool for immunomonitoring, and their harmonisation is crucial to obtain comparable data in multicentre clinical trials. The objective of this study was to design a harmonisation workflow able to address the most effective issues contributing to intra- and interoperator variabilities in a multicentre project. Methods. The Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS) managed a multiparametric flow cytometric panel harmonisation among thirteen operators belonging to five clinical and research centres of Lazio region (Italy). The panel was based on a backbone mixture of dried antibodies (anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD45RA, and anti-CCR7) to detect naïve/memory T cells, recognised as potential prognostic/predictive immunological biomarkers in cancer immunotherapies. The coordinating centre distributed frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and fresh whole blood (WB) samples from healthy donors, reagents, and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to participants who performed experiments by their own equipment, in order to mimic a real-life scenario. Operators returned raw and locally analysed data to ISS for central analysis and statistical elaboration. Results. Harmonised and reproducible results were obtained by sharing experimental set-up and procedures along with centralising data analysis, leading to a reduction of cross-centre variability for naïve/memory subset frequencies particularly in the whole blood setting. Conclusion. Our experimental and analytical working process proved to be suitable for the harmonisation of FCM assays in a multicentre setting, where high-quality data are required to evaluate potential immunological markers, which may contribute to select better therapeutic options.
Assessing the Changes of Mumps Characteristics with Different Vaccination Strategies Using Surveillance Data: Importance to Introduce the 2-Dose Schedule in Quzhou of China
Background. From 2005 to 2016, the prevention and control of mumps in China have undergone three stages of transition. These include the use of MuCV as a self-supported vaccine, the introduction of one-dose MMR to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), and the administration of two-dose MuCV following supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) using MM. Here, using surveillance data, we assessed the epidemiology of mumps during the three stages. Methods. Children in Quzhou of China born from 2005 to 2016 and registered in the Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System (ZJIIS) were included. We analyzed the epidemic data and calculated incidence and MuCV coverage via birth cohorts. Results. The average incidence of mumps in 2005-2006, 2007-2010, and 2011-2016 was 51.57, 41.02, and 12.53 per 100,000 individuals, respectively. The highest incidence was in children aged 6-14 years from 2005-2016, of which the majority were school students (67.84%). Approximately 90% of the reported outbreaks occurred in school children (primary school/middle school). The seasonal characteristics of mumps were less obvious from 2011 to 2016. The coverage of one-dose MMR in the 2005 birth cohort was 71.38%. For the 2006-2010 birth cohort, the coverage of one-dose MuCV was 96.82% and the coverage of two-dose MuCV was 17.68%. The children born from 2011 to 2016 were only free vaccinated with MMR; the coverage of one-dose MuCV was 99.10%. The mumps incidence in the three birth cohorts significantly declined (, for trend). Except the children less than two years old, the mumps incidence for the children born from 2006 to 2010 was higher than that for the children born from 2011 to 2016. Conclusion. The mumps incidence significantly declined following the introduction of one-dose MMR. The SIA using MM led to a rapid reduction of mumps cases. Therefore, we recommend a two-dose MuCV routine immunization schedule and improved vaccination coverage.
Peripheral B Cell Subsets in Autoimmune Diseases: Clinical Implications and Effects of B Cell-Targeted Therapies
Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) play a fundamental role in humoral immunity. The aberrant function of ASCs is related to a number of disease states, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. Recent insights into activated B cell subsets, including naïve B cell to ASC stages and their resultant cellular disturbances, suggest that aberrant ASC differentiation occurs during autoimmune diseases and is closely related to disease severity. However, the mechanisms underlying highly active ASC differentiation and the B cell subsets in autoimmune patients remain undefined. Here, we first review the processes of ASC generation. From the perspective of novel therapeutic target discovery, prediction of disease progression, and current clinical challenges, we further summarize the aberrant activity of B cell subsets including specialized memory CD11chiT-bet+ B cells that participate in the maintenance of autoreactive ASC populations. An improved understanding of subgroups may also enhance the knowledge of antigen-specific B cell differentiation. We further discuss the influence of current B cell therapies on B cell subsets, specifically focusing on systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and myasthenia gravis.
Neuroinflammatory Markers in the Serum of Prepubertal Children with Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder. Although DS individuals are mostly perceived as characterized by some distinct physical features, cognitive disabilities, and cardiac defects, they also show important dysregulations of immune functions. While critical information is available for adults with DS, little literature is available on the neuroinflammation in prepubertal DS children. We aimed to evaluate in prepubertal DS children the serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), oxidative stress as free oxygen radicals defense (FORD), free oxygen radicals test (FORT), and cytokines playing key roles in neuroinflammation and oxidative processes as TNF-α, TGF-β, MCP-1, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12. No differences were found in NGF between DS children and controls. However, BDNF was higher in DS subjects compared to controls. We also did not reveal changes in FORD and FORT. Quite interestingly, the serum of DS children disclosed a marked decrease in all analyzed cytokines with evident differences in serum cytokine presence between male and female DS children. In conclusion, the present study evidences in DS prepubertal children a disruption in the neurotrophins and immune system pathways.