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Developmental Immunology
Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 211-222

IgH Diversity In an Individual With Only One Million B Lymphocytes

Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA

Received 2 March 1993; Accepted 23 March 1993

Copyright © 1993 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Immunoglobulin sequences from an individual Xenopus laevis froglet were analyzed for combinatorial and junctional diversity. In an animal with about 106 B lymphocytes, at least 26 out of the 56 VH1 genes available in a diploid genome were expressed, as were all JH segments. Junctional diversity was similar to that observed in Xenopus tadpole sequences, that is, little or no N diversification was found and the recombination site sometimes occurred in a region of V/D or D/J homology. The froglet IgH diversity is further restricted by the elimination of D-gene participation through direct V to J joining. Of the six complementary-determining regions (CDR) contributing to the structure of the antigen-combining site, CDR3 is the most variable in sequence and structure. Froglet IgH CDR3 are restricted to both aspects. Compared to IgH sequences isolated from a 5-month-old adult, froglet CDR3 were, on the average, two codons shorter; overall, 58% of the froglet Ig sequences isolated carried CDR3 of ≤ 7 codons, compared to 30% of the adult sequences. In addition to being shorter, the tadpole/froglet CDR3 are less variable in sequence, as the absence of N regions also results in the V/D and D/J junctions being derived from germline elements. We therefore suggest that latent anti-adult specificities are not eliminated in situ, in the tadpole, but rather that such germline gene segments, singly or in their combinations thereof, that can potentially react to adult self-epitopes after metamorphosis have been counterselected during the course of evolution.