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Developmental Immunology
Volume 6, Issue 3-4, Pages 253-260

Correction of the TNF-LTα-Deficient Phenotype by Bone Marrow Transplantation

1Institute of Pathology, University of Basel, Basel CH-4003, Switzerland
2Institute of Anatomy, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
3Department of Immunology, Medical School, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South Africa

Received 5 August 1996; Accepted 3 May 1997

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mice with inactivated TNF-LTα genes have profound abnormalities of the immune system with hypoimmunoglobulinaemia, lack of lymph nodes, undifferentiated spleen, and defective Ig class switch. Transplantation of bone marrow cells from wild-type mice restored the synthesis of TNF, corrected the splenic microarchitecture, repopulated the lamina propria with IgA-producing plasma cells, and normalized the serum immunoglobulin levels of TNF-LTα deficient mice. Furthermore, the formation of germinal centers in the spleen and the defective Ig class switch in response to a T-cell-dependent antigen is corrected. These data demonstrate that most TNFproducing cells are bone-marrow-derived, and that the immunodeficiency due to TNF-LTα deletion can be corrected to a large extent by normal bone marrow, cell transplantation.