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Developmental Immunology
Volume 6, Issue 1-2, Pages 119-128
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1998/92198

Effector Mechanisms in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes

1Immunology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Institute for Biological Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Accepted 30 May 1997

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The cellular and molecular requirements for β-cell damages in an immune-mediated toxininduced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been studied in the model of multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats and mice. It was found that strain-related susceptibility to diabetes induction correlated with a higher level of IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α production, whereas such differences were not observed when IL-1 and NO production by macrophages were analyzed; elimination of immunoregulatory RT6+T cells that increases IFN-γ production, enhances susceptibility to MLD-STZ-induced diabetes; mercury-induced Th-2 cells downregulated the disease; IFN-γ-mediated macrophage activation to produce proinflammatory cytokines rather than NO is an important event in early diabetogenic effects of invading macrophages; inhibition of IL-1 activity downregulates diabetes induction; and generation of NO in β cells appears to be important for diabetogenic effects. Taken together, data indicate that MLD-STZ diabetes is induced by Th-1 lymphocytes that secrete soluble effector molecules that activate macrophages and promote destruction of β cells possibly by both nitric oxide and nonnitric oxide-mediated mechanisms.