Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2008, Article ID 790309, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/790309
Research Article

Aflatoxin-Related Immune Dysfunction in Health and in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease

1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35226, USA
2St. Markus Hospital and AIDS ALLY, Kumasi, Ghana
3Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
4Department of Biochemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
5College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
6College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223, USA

Received 18 March 2008; Accepted 28 May 2008

Academic Editor: Yang Liu

Copyright © 2008 Yi Jiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [71 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • C. P. Wild, and Y. Y. Gong, “Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 71–82, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. Khlangwiset, and F. Wu, “Costs and efficacy of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin-induced human disease,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 998–1014, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jonathan H. Williams, Jessica A. Grubb, Jerry W. Davis, Jia-Sheng Wang, Pauline E. Jolly, Nii-Ayi Ankrah, William O. Ellis, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Natalie M. Johnson, Abraham G. Robinson, and Timothy D. Phillips, “HIV and hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas related to consumption of mycotoxin-prone foods in sub-Saharan Africa,” American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 154–160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fernando Fariñas Guerrero, Trinidad Sabalete Moya, and Emilio Mayayo Artal, “Micobacteriosis no tuberculosa de origen zoonósico relacionada con hepatotoxicidad por aflatoxinas. Estudio de un brote familiar,” Revista Española de Patología, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 133–138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rodney R. Dietert, and Janice M. Dietert, “Immunotoxicology and Foods,” Dietary Components and Immune Function, pp. 567–587, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Felicia Wu, and Pornsri Khlangwiset, “Evaluating the technical feasibility of aflatoxin risk reduction strategies in Africa,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 658–676, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • F. Wu, and P. Khlangwiset, “Health economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin-reduction strategies in Africa: case studies in biocontrol and post-harvest interventions,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 496–509, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Johnni H. Daniel, Lauren W. Lewis, Yanique A. Redwood, Stephanie Kieszak, Robert F. Breiman, W. Dana Flanders, Carlos Bell, John Mwihia, George Ogana, Sopiato Likimani, Masja Straetemans, and Michael A. McGeehin, “Comprehensive Assessment of Maize Aflatoxin Levels in Eastern Kenya, 2005–2007,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 1794–1799, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. Probst, R. Bandyopadhyay, L. E. Price, and P. J. Cotty, “Identification of Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolates to Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Kenya,” Plant Disease, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 212–218, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ludmila V. Roze, Anna V. Koptina, Maris Laivenieks, Randolph M. Beaudry, Daniel A. Jones, Albert V. Kanarsky, and John E. Linz, “Willow volatiles influence growth, development, and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus parasiticus,” Applied Microbiology And Biotechnology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 359–370, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. E. Jolly, F. M. Shuaib, Y. Jiang, P. Preko, J. Baidoo, J. K. Stiles, J. -S. Wang, T. D. Phillips, and J. H. Williams, “Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B-1-albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations,” Food Additives And Contaminants Part A-Chemistry Analysis Control Exposure , vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1224–1234, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • John Keenan, Pauline Jolly, Peter Preko, Joseph Baidoo, Jia-Sheng Wang, Timothy D. Phillips, Jonathan H. Williams, and Gerald McGwin Jr., “Association between aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct levels and tuberculosis infection among HIV+ Ghanaians,” Archives of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 3, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Mario Augusto Ono, and Carolina Nachi Rossipp. 121–127, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kenneth C. Ehrlich, Brian M. Mack, Qijian Wei, Ping Li, Ludmila V. Roze, Frank Dazzo, Jeffrey W. Cary, Deepak Bhatnagar, and John E. Linz, “Association with AflR in Endosomes Reveals New Functions for AflJ in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” Toxins, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1582–1600, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Betsy Foxman2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Betsy Foxman, “A Primer of Molecular Biology,” Molecular Tools and Infectious Disease Epidemiology, pp. 53–78, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jolly, Inusah, Lu, Ellis, Nyarko, Phillips, and Williams, “Association between high aflatoxin B1 levels and high viral load in HIV-positive people,” World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 255–261, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. Marin, A.J. Ramos, G. Cano-Sancho, and V. Sanchis, “Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Guoqing Qian, Lili Tang, Xia Guo, Franklin Wang, Michael E. Massey, Jianjia Su, Tai L. Guo, Jonathan H. Williams, Timothy D. Phillips, and Jia-Sheng Wang, “ Aflatoxin B 1 modulates the expression of phenotypic markers and cytokines by splenic lymphocytes of male F344 rats ,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Esam S. Kamel, “Histological study on the effect of aflatoxin B1 on the renal tubules of adult rats,” The Egyptian Journal of Histology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 246–252, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ludmila V. Roze, Sung-Yong Hong, and John E. Linz, “Aflatoxin Biosynthesis: Current Frontiers,” Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 293–311, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marilyn L. Warburton, W. Paul Williams, Gary L. Windham, Seth C. Murray, Wenwei Xu, Leigh K. Hawkins, and Jorge Franco Duran, “Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of a Maize Association Mapping Panel Developed for the Identification of New Sources of Resistance to Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Accumulation,” Crop Science, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 2374–2383, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Limbikani Matumba, Maurice Monjerezi, Timothy Biswick, Jonas Mwatseteza, Wilkson Makumba, David Kamangira, and Alfred Mtukuso, “A survey of the incidence and level of aflatoxin contamination in a range of locally and imported processed foods on Malawian retail market,” Food Control, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wilfred A. Abia, Benedikt Warth, Michael Sulyok, Rudolf Krska, Angele Tchana, Patrick B. Njobeh, Paul C. Turner, Charles Kouanfack, Mbu Eyongetah, Mike Dutton, and Paul F. Moundipa, “Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maya R. Sternberg, Leslie F. McCoy, Carissa D. Powers, Rosemary L. Schleicher, and Christine M. Pfeiffer, “Serum concentrations of an aflatoxin-albumin adduct in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 423, pp. 46–50, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paul Craig Turner, “The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth,” Scientifica, vol. 2013, pp. 1–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. G. Marroquin-Cardona, N. M. Johnson, T. D. Phillips, and A. W. Hayes, “Mycotoxins in a changing global environment - A review,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 69, pp. 220–230, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • F. Wu, “Global impacts of aflatoxin in maize: trade and human health,” World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 1, no. -1, pp. 1–6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Benedikt Warth, Isaac M. Ogara, Wilfred A. Abia, Victoria C. Ezekiel, Joseph Atehnkeng, Michael Sulyok, Paul C. Turner, Grace O. Tayo, Rudolf Krska, and Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, “Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: A pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers,” Environment International, vol. 66, pp. 138–145, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Benedikt Warth, Isaac M. Ogara, Wilfred A. Abia, Victoria C. Ezekiel, Joseph Atehnkeng, Michael Sulyok, Paul C. Turner, Grace O. Tayo, Rudolf Krska, and Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, “Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: A pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers,” Environment International, vol. 66, pp. 138–145, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wei Wei, Rui Li, Liang He, Xu Wang, Xiaofeng Ji, and Yu Zhou, “Evaluation of toxicological impacts on Sprague-Dawley rat by successively low dose of aflatoxin B1,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pauline E Jolly, “Aflatoxin: does it contribute to an increase in HIV viral load?,” Future Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 121–124, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gershim Asiki, Janet Seeley, Chou Srey, Kathy Baisley, Tracy Lightfoot, Kaaya Archileo, Dorice Agol, Andrew Abaasa, Katie Wakeham, Michael N. Routledge, Christopher P. Wild, Robert Newton, and Yun Yun Gong, “A pilot study to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in a rural Ugandan population,” Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Felicia Wu, Nicole J. Mitchell, Denis Male, and Thomas W. Kensler, “Reduced Foodborne Toxin Exposure Is a Benefit of Improving Dietary Diversity,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 329–334, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marilyn L. Warburton, Juliet D. Tang, Gary L. Windham, Leigh K. Hawkins, Seth C. Murray, Wenwei Xu, Debbie Boykin, Andy Perkins, and W. Paul Williams, “Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize,” Crop Science, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1857–1867, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Katarzyna Szarlej-Wcislo, and Gabriel Wcislovol. 1, pp. 59–77, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J.I. Pitt, C. Manthong, Prisnar Siriacha, S. Chotechaunmanirat, and P.J. Markwell, “Studies on the biocontrol of aflatoxin in maize in Thailand,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1070–1091, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • H. Hernandez-Vargas, J. Castelino, M. J. Silver, P. Dominguez-Salas, M.-P. Cros, G. Durand, F. L. Calvez-Kelm, A. M. Prentice, C. P. Wild, S. E. Moore, B. J. Hennig, Z. Herceg, Y. Y. Gong, and M. N. Routledge, “Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in utero is associated with DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia,” International Journal of Epidemiology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Limbikani Matumba, Christof Van Poucke, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Bart Jacobs, and Sarah De Saeger, “Effectiveness of hand sorting, flotation/washing, dehulling and combinations thereof on the decontamination of mycotoxin-contaminated white maize,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, pp. 1–10, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Clara Y. Chan, and Bruce J. Kelman, “Mycotoxins,” Hamilton & Hardy's Industrial Toxicology, pp. 1283–1294, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. Watson, P.M. Diedhiou, J. Atehnkeng, A. Dem, R. Bandyopadhyay, C. ey, M.N. Routledge, and Y.Y. Gong, “Seasonal and geographical differences in aflatoxin exposures in Senegal,” World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 1, no. -1, pp. 1–8, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Seong-Hwan Park, Dongwook Kim, Juil Kim, and Yuseok Moon, “Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis,” Toxins, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 4484–4502, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pauline Jolly, Tomi Akinyemiju, Megha Jha, Inmaculada Aban, Andrea Gonzalez-Falero, and Dnika Joseph, “Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults,” Toxins, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5129–5140, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Yinka Somorin, Foluke I. Odutayo, Stella U. Nwabekee, Afeez T. Balogun, and Rudolf Krska, “Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patrick A. Geary, Gaoyun Chen, Martin E. Kimanya, Candida P. Shirima, Michalina Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Christopher T. Elliott, Michael N. Routledge, and Yun Yun Gong, “Determination of multi-mycotoxin occurrence in maize based porridges from selected regions of Tanzania by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a longitudinal study,” Food Control, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saleh A. Bakheet, Sabry M. Attia, Mohammad Y. Alwetaid, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Khairy M.A. Zoheir, Ahmed Nadeem, Othman A. Al-Shabanah, Mohammed M. Al-Harbi, and Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad, “β-1,3-Glucan reverses aflatoxin B1-mediated suppression of immune responses in mice,” Life Sciences, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sinead Watson, Gaoyun Chen, Abdoulaye Sylla, Michael N. Routledge, and Yun Yun Gong, “Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and micronutrient status among young children from Guinea,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 511–518, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xi Peng, Shan Zhou, Zhengqiang Yu, Na Liang, Xiaochong Li, Hengmin Cui, Weimin Lai, Yi Zhou, Xiaofeng Chi, Min Jiang, and Jing Fang, “The mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in the thymocytes apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1,” Oncotarget, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 12222–12234, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nyangweso Salano Elsie, Amos Obonyo Meshack, Jebet Toroitich Faith, Omondi Odhiambo Benard, and Omondi Aman Bonaventure, “Diversity of putatively toxigenic Aspergillus species in maize and soil samples in an aflatoxicosis hotspot in Eastern Kenya,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 172–184, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicole J. Mitchell, Erin Bowers, Charles Hurburgh, and Felicia Wu, “Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, pp. 1–11, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yun Yun Gong, Sinead Watson, and Michael N Routledge, “Aflatoxin Exposure and Associated Human Health Effects, a Review of Epidemiological Studies,” Food Safety, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 14–27, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Spurthi N Nayak, Gaurav Agarwal, Manish K Pandey, Hari K Sudini, Ashwin S Jayale, Shilp Purohit, Aarthi Desai, Liyun Wan, Baozhu Guo, Boshou Liao, and Rajeev K Varshney, “Aspergillus flavus infection triggered immune responses and host-pathogen cross-talks in groundnut during in-vitro seed colonization,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sinead Watson, Michael Routledge, and Yun Yun Gong, “Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1963–1975, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Juma A. Mmongoyo, Felicia Wu, John E. Linz, Muraleedharan G. Nair, Jovin K. Mugula, Robert J. Tempelman, and Gale M. Strasburg, “Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania,” Plos One, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. e0175801, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Grey Matita, Lazarus Singano, Maurice Monjerezi, Samuel M. C. Njoroge, Kennedy Magamba, Limbikani Matumba, and Aggrey P. Gama, “Aflatoxin risk management in commercial groundnut products in Malawi (Sub-Saharan Africa): a call for a more socially responsible industry,” Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 309–316, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohammad Mohajeri, Behzad Behnam, Arrigo F. G. Cicero, and Amirhossein Sahebkar, “Protective effects of curcumin against aflatoxicosis: A comprehensive review,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Innocent Mupunga, Pamella Mngqawa, and David Katerere, “Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1287, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ya Xu, Andrew Doel, Sinead Watson, Michael N. Routledge, Christopher T. Elliott, Sophie E. Moore, and Yun Yun Gong, “ Study of an Educational Hand Sorting Intervention for Reducing Aflatoxin B 1 in Groundnuts in Rural Gambia ,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kalpana D. Patel, and William J. Reapp. 1–896, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Samuel M. C. Njoroge, Limbikani Matumba, Kennedy Kanenga, Moses Siambi, Farid Waliyar, Joseph Maruwo, Norah Machinjiri, and Emmanuel S. Monyo, “Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut products from local markets in Zambia,” Mycotoxin Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mmongoyo, Strasburg, Wu, Zhang, Day, Wee, Nair, Linz, Mugula, and Dissanayake, “Bioactive compounds in Diospyros mafiensis roots inhibit growth, sporulation and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus,” World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 237–248, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anitha Seetha, Emmanuel S. Monyo, Takuji W. Tsusaka, Harry W. Msere, Frank Madinda, Tiyamika Chilunjika, Ethel Sichone, Dickson Mbughi, Benson Chilima, and Limbikani Matumba, “Aflatoxin-lysine adducts in blood serum of the Malawian rural population and aflatoxin contamination in foods (groundnuts, maize) in the corresponding areas,” Mycotoxin Research, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yun Yun Gong, Gaoyun Chen, Martin E. Kimanya, Candida P. Shirima, and Michael N. Routledge, “Comparison of urinary aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin albumin adducts as biomarkers for assessing aflatoxin exposure in Tanzanian children,” Biomarkers, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 131–136, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Blake R. Rushing, and Mustafa I. Selim, “Aflatoxin B1: A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational exposure, and detoxification methods,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jun Zhou, Lili Tang, and Jia-Sheng Wang, “Assessment of the adverse impacts of aflatoxin B1 on gut-microbiota dependent metabolism in F344 rats,” Chemosphere, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vikram Patial, Rajesh Kumar Asrani, and Meenakshi Thakur, “Food-Borne Mycotoxicoses: Pathologies and Public Health Impact,” Foodborne Diseases, pp. 239–274, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Routledge, Xu, and Gong, “Aflatoxin exposure assessed by aflatoxin albumin adduct biomarker in populations from six African countries,” World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 411–419, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yuhua Shan, “The Toxic Effects of Aflatoxin B1: An Update,” Aflatoxin B1 Occurrence, Detection and Toxicological Effects [Working Title], 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gal Winter, and Lily Pereg, “A review on the relation between soil and mycotoxins: Effect of aflatoxin on field, food and finance,” European Journal of Soil Science, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lorena Díaz de León-Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Olivier Barbier, Dora Linda Guzmán Ortíz, Manolo Ortega-Romero, Francisco Pérez-Vázquez, and Rogelio Flores-Ramírez, “Evaluation of emerging biomarkers of renal damage and exposure to aflatoxin-B1 in Mexican indigenous women: a pilot study,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nurshad Ali, “Aflatoxins in rice: worldwide occurrence and public health perspectives,” Toxicology Reports, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar