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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2011, Article ID 235142, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/235142
Review Article

Adaptive Immune Responses in Primary Cutaneous Sarcoidosis

1Unit of Dermatology, University of Padua, Via Cesare Battisti 206, 35128 Padua, Italy
2Respiratory Diseases Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Siena University, 53100 Siena, Italy
3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padua, Via Cesare Battisti 206, 35128 Padua, Italy

Received 31 July 2010; Accepted 27 January 2011

Academic Editor: E. Shevach

Copyright © 2011 Matteo Bordignon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder with cutaneous lesions present in about one-quarter of the patients. Cutaneous lesions have been classified as specific and nonspecific, depending on the presence of nonnecrotizing epithelial cell granulomas on histologic studies. The development and progression of specific cutaneous sarcoidosis involves a complex interaction between cells of the adaptive immune systems, notably T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells. In this paper, we will discuss the role of T-cells and skin dendritic cells in the development of primary cutaneous sarcoidosis and comment on the potential antigenic stimuli that may account for the development of the immunological response. We will further explore the contributions of selected cytokines to the immunopathological process. The knowledge of the adaptive immunological mechanisms operative in cutaneous sarcoidosis may subsequently be useful for identifying prevention and treatment strategies of systemic sarcoidosis.