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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2011, Article ID 585919, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/585919
Review Article

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

1CAPRISA Treatment Research Program, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, 4013 Durban, South Africa
2Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 4013 Durban, South Africa
3Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, NY 10032, USA

Received 15 June 2010; Accepted 29 July 2010

Academic Editor: Katalin Andrea Wilkinson

Copyright © 2011 Kogieleum Naidoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6.