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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2011, Article ID 630187, 12 pages
Research Article

NOD Dendritic Cells Stimulated with Lactobacilli Preferentially Produce IL-10 versus IL-12 and Decrease Diabetes Incidence

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville HSC, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
2Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike HFM 725, Rockville, MS 20852, USA

Received 15 January 2011; Revised 25 March 2011; Accepted 5 April 2011

Academic Editor: Abdelaziz Amrani

Copyright © 2011 Jean N. Manirarora et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dendritic cells (DCs) from NOD mice produced high levels of IL-12 that induce IFN -producing T cells involved in diabetes development. We propose to utilize the microorganism ability to induce tolerogenic DCs to abrogate the proinflammatory process and prevent diabetes development. NOD DCs were stimulated with Lactobacilli (nonpathogenic bacteria targeting TLR2) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (TLR2 agonist). LTA-treated DCs produced much more IL-12 than IL-10 and accelerated diabetes development when transferred into NOD mice. In contrast, stimulation of NOD DCs with L. casei favored the production of IL-10 over IL-12, and their transfer decreased disease incidence which anti-IL-10R antibodies restored. These data indicated that L. casei can induce NOD DCs to develop a more tolerogenic phenotype via production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Evaluation of the relative production of IL-10 and IL-12 by DCs may be a very useful means of identifying agents that have therapeutic potential.