Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 101895, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/101895
Review Article

Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update

1Clinical Medical Research Institute, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, No. 1 Liyushan Road, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, China
2Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Division, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia

Received 7 July 2011; Accepted 28 September 2011

Academic Editor: Antonio Cascio

Copyright © 2012 Wenbao Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights on the nature of the immune responses generated during the course of a hydatid infection, although many aspects of the Echinococcus-host interplay remain unexplored. This paper summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the immunology and diagnosis of echinococcosis, indicates areas where information is lacking, and suggests possible new strategies to improve serodiagnosis for practical application.