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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 284104, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/284104
Research Article

Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Glycoprotein Interaction with HVEM Influences Virus-Specific Recall Cellular Responses at the Mucosa

1Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
2Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA

Received 18 November 2011; Revised 23 February 2012; Accepted 8 March 2012

Academic Editor: Ali A. Ashkar

Copyright © 2012 Sarah J. Kopp et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Infection of susceptible cells by herpes simplex virus (HSV) requires the interaction of the HSV gD glycoprotein with one of two principal entry receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) or nectins. HVEM naturally functions in immune signaling, and the gD-HVEM interaction alters innate signaling early after mucosal infection. We investigated whether the gD-HVEM interaction during priming changes lymphocyte recall responses in the murine intravaginal model. Mice were primed with attenuated HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD or mutant gD unable to engage HVEM and challenged 32 days later with virulent HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells were decreased at the genital mucosa during the recall response after priming with virus unable to engage HVEM but did not differ in draining lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells, which are critical for entry of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells into mucosa in acute infection, did not differ between the two groups in either tissue. An inverse association between Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells and CD8+ infiltration into the mucosa was not statistically significant. CXCR3 surface expression was not significantly different among different lymphocyte subsets. We conclude that engagement of HVEM during the acute phase of HSV infection influences the antiviral CD8+ recall response by an unexplained mechanism.