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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 612809, 5 pages
Review Article

Bartonella Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts: Immunology of Vascular Infection and Vasoproliferation

Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 100 Centrex, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Received 15 July 2011; Revised 27 September 2011; Accepted 29 September 2011

Academic Editor: Georgios Pappas

Copyright © 2012 Mosepele Mosepele et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Most infections by genus Bartonella in immunocompromised patients are caused by B. henselae and B. quintana. Unlike immunocompetent hosts who usually develop milder diseases such as cat scratch disease and trench fever, immunocompromised patients, including those living with HIV/AIDS and posttransplant patients, are more likely to develop different and severe life-threatening disease. This paper will discuss Bartonella's manifestations in immunosuppressed patients and will examine Bartonella's interaction with the immune system including its mechanisms of establishing infection and immune escape. Gaps in current understanding of the immunology of Bartonella infection in immunocompromised hosts will be highlighted.