Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 638185, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/638185
Review Article

Indolent B-Cell Lymphomas Associated with HCV Infection: Clinical and Virological Features and Role of Antiviral Therapy

1Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale di Circolo, Fondazione Macchi, 21100 Varese, Italy
3Department of Hematology, DISM, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria S. M. Misericordia, 33100 Udine, Italy
4Clinica Ematologica, Centro Trapianti e Terapie Cellulari “Carlo Melzi”, DISM, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria S. M. Misericordia, p.le S. Maria Misericordia 15, 33100 Udine, Italy

Received 16 May 2012; Revised 4 July 2012; Accepted 4 July 2012

Academic Editor: Jürg Schifferli

Copyright © 2012 Luca Arcaini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. G. Gribben, “How I treat indolent lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 11, pp. 4617–4626, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. G. Isaacson, M. A. Piris, F. Berger et al., “Splenic B-cell marginal zone lymphoma,” in WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, S. Swerdlow, E. Campo, N. L. Harris et al., Eds., pp. 218–219, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 4th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  3. F. Marcucci and A. Mele, “Hepatitis viruses and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: epidemiology, mechanisms of tumorigenesis, and therapeutic opportunities,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1792–1798, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Suarez, O. Lortholary, O. Hermine, and M. Lecuit, “Infection-associated lymphomas derived from marginal zone B cells: a model of antigen-driven lymphoproliferation,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 3034–3044, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. O. Hermine, F. Lefrère, J. P. Bronowicki et al., “Regression of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes after treatment of hepatitis C virus infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Poordad, J. McCone Jr., B. R. Bacon et al., “Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 13, pp. 1195–1206, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Hézode, N. Forestier, G. Dusheiko et al., “Telaprevir and peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1839–1850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. Agnello, R. T. Chung, and L. M. Kaplan, “A role for hepatitis C virus infection in Type II cryoglobulinemia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 327, no. 21, pp. 1490–1495, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Agnello, Q. X. Zhang, G. Abel, and G. B. Knight, “The association of hepatitis C virus infection with monoclonal rheumatoid factors bearing the WA cross-idiotype: implications for the etiopathogenesis and therapy of mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 13, supplement 13, pp. S-101–S-104, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. Ferri, A. L. Zignego, and S. A. Pileri, “Cryoglobulins,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 4–13, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Monti, P. Pioltelli, F. Saccardo et al., “Incidence and characteristics of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in a multicenter case file of patients with hepatitis C virus-related symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinemias,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 101–105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. L. Zignego, F. Giannelli, M. E. Marrocchi et al., “Frequency of bcl-2 rearrangement in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and HCV-positive liver diseases,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 711–712, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Mazzaro, G. Monti, F. Saccardo et al., “Efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for HCV-positive mixed cryoglobulinemia: a multicentre open-label study,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 933–941, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  14. D. Saadoun, M. R. Rigon, D. Sene et al., “Rituximab plus Peg-interferon-α/ribavirin compared with Peg-interferon-α/ribavirin in hepatitis C-related mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 326–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Dammacco, F. A. Tucci, G. Lauletta et al., “Pegylated interferon-α, ribavirin, and rituximab combined therapy of hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia: a long-term study,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 343–353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Arcaini, M. Lazzarino, N. Colombo et al., “Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: a prognostic model for clinical use,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 12, pp. 4643–4649, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Saadoun, F. Suarez, F. Lefrere et al., “Splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes, associated with type II cryoglobulinemia and HCV infection: a new entity?” Blood, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 74–76, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Arcaini, M. Paulli, S. Burcheri et al., “Primary nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: clinical features and prognostic assessment of a rare disease,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 301–304, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Arcaini, S. Burcheri, A. Rossi et al., “Nongastric marginal-zone B-cell MALT lymphoma: prognostic value of disease dissemination,” Oncologist, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 285–291, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. J. M. Ferreri, E. Viale, M. Guidoboni et al., “Clinical implications of hepatitis C virus infection in MALT-type lymphoma of the ocular adnexa,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 769–772, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Paulli, L. Arcaini, M. Lucioni et al., “Subcutaneous 'lipoma-like' B-cell lymphoma associated with HCV infection: a new presentation of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1189–1195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Tedeschi, E. Vismara, M. Varettoni et al., “Clinical and biological implications of hepatitis C virus positivity in waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia patients,” in Proceedings of the ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts, vol. 114, p. 2934, 2009.
  23. L. Arcaini, M. Varettoni, E. Boveri et al., “Distinctive clinical and histological features of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and splenic marginal zone lymphoma,” Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 103–105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. C. Goldaniga, A. Ferrario, S. Cortelazzo et al., “A multicenter retrospective clinical study of CD5/CD10-negative chronic B cell leukemias,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 349–354, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Wasley and M. J. Alter, “Epidemiology of hepatitis C: geographic differences and temporal trends,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. W. Shepard, L. Finelli, and M. J. Alter, “Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 558–567, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Talamini, M. Montella, M. Crovatto et al., “Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and hepatitis C virus: a case-control study from northern and southern Italy,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 380–385, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. D. Collier, B. Zanke, M. Moore et al., “No association between hepatitis C and B-cell lymphoma,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1259–1261, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. P. Gisbert, L. García-Buey, M. J. Pajares, and R. Moreno-Otero, “Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in B-cell non-hodgkin's lymphoma: systematic, review and meta-analysis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1723–1732, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Nieters, B. Kallinowski, P. Brennan et al., “Hepatitis C and risk of lymphoma: results of the European multicenter case-control study EPILYMPH,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 1879–1886, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. De Sanjose, Y. Benavente, C. M. Vajdic et al., “Hepatitis C and non-hodgkin lymphoma among 4784 cases and 6269 controls from the international lymphoma epidemiology consortium,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 451–458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Arcaini, S. Burcheri, A. Rossi et al., “Prevalence of HCV infection in nongastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 346–350, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Tomita, F. Kodama, M. Takabayashi et al., “Clinical features and outcome in HCV-positive aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1159–1164, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Visco, L. Arcaini, E. Brusamolino et al., “Distinctive natural history in hepatitis C virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: analysis of 156 patients from northern Italy,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1434–1440, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Lecuit, E. Abachin, A. Martin et al., “Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease associated with campylobacter jejuni,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 3, pp. 239–248, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Roggero, E. Zucca, C. Mainetti et al., “Eradication of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the skin,” Human Pathology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 263–268, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. J. M. Ferreri, M. Guidoboni, M. Ponzoni et al., “Evidence for an association between Chlamydia psittaci and ocular adnexal lymphomas,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 586–594, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. J. M. Ferreri, M. Ponzoni, M. Guidoboni et al., “Regression of ocular adnexal lymphoma after Chlamydia psittaci-eradicating antibiotic therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 5067–5073, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. Arcaini, M. Paulli, E. Boveri, U. Magrini, and M. Lazzarino, “Marginal zone-related neoplasms of splenic and nodal origin,” Haematologica, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 80–93, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. V. Melo, U. Hegde, and A. Parreira, “Splenic B cell lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes: differential diagnosis of B cell leukaemias with large spleens,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 642–651, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. V. Melo, D. S. F. Robinson, C. Gregory, and D. Catovsky, “Splenic B cell lymphoma with 'villous' lymphocytes in the peripheral blood: a disorder distinct from hairy cell leukemia,” Leukemia, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 294–298, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. G. Isaacson, E. Matutes, M. Burke, and D. Catovsky, “The histopathology of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes,” Blood, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 3828–3834, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Marasca, P. Vaccari, M. Luppi et al., “Immunoglobulin gene mutations and frequent use of VH1-69 and VH4-34 segments in hepatitis C virus-positive and hepatitis C virus-negative nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 253–261, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. O. Armitage, “A clinical evaluation of the International Lymphoma Study Group classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Classification Project,” Blood, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 3909–3918, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. Cavalli, P. G. Isaacson, R. D. Gascoyne, and E. Zucca, “MALT Lymphomas,” Hematology, pp. 241–258, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Thieblemont, “Clinical presentation and management of marginal zone lymphomas,” Hematology, pp. 307–313, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Thieblemont, F. Berger, C. Dumontet et al., “Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a disseminated disease in one third of 158 patients analyzed,” Blood, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 802–806, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Thieblemont, A. de la Fouchardière, and B. Coiffier, “Nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas,” Clinical Lymphoma, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 212–224, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Zucca, A. Conconi, E. Pedrinis et al., “Nongastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 2489–2495, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Coiffier, E. A. Osmanov, X. Hong et al., “Bortezomib plus rituximab versus rituximab alone in patients with relapsed, rituximab-naive or rituximab-sensitive, follicular lymphoma: a randomised phase 3 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 773–784, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Luppi, G. Longo, M. G. Ferrari et al., “Additional neoplasms and HCV infection in low-grade lymphoma of MALT type,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 373–375, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Ambrosetti, R. Zanotti, C. Pattaro et al., “Most cases of primary salivary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma are associated either with Sjoegren syndrome or hepatitis C virus infection,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Ramos-Casals, L. La Civita, S. De Vita et al., “Characterization of B cell lymphoma in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and hepatitis C virus infection,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 161–170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. X. Leleu, K. O'Connor, A. W. Ho et al., “Hepatitis C viral infection is not associated with Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 83–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Arcaini, P. Sacchi, V. Jemos et al., “Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in a HIV-positive patient: a case report,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 379–381, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. Arcaini, C. Pascutto, F. Passamonti et al., “Bayesian models identify specific lymphoproliferative disorders associated with hepatitis C virus infection,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 2246–2249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Matutes, K. Owusu-Ankomah, R. Morilla et al., “The immunological profile of B-cell disorders and proposal of a scoring system for the diagnosis of CLL,” Leukemia, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1640–1645, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. V. Ugo, N. Leporrier, V. Salaun et al., “Deciphering leukemic B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 2088–2095, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. W. Fried, M. L. Shiffman, K. Rajender Reddy et al., “Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 13, pp. 975–982, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. J. Hadziyannis, H. Sette Jr., T. R. Morgan et al., “Peginterferon-α2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 346–355, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, and L. B. Seeff, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1335–1374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. B. Jesudian, M. Gambarin-Gelwan, and I. M. Jacobson, “Advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection,” Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 8, pp. 91–101, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  63. F. Bauduer, “MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with hepatitis C virus infection treated by interferon alpha,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 53, p. 209, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  64. P. Caramaschi, D. Biasi, A. Carletto et al., “Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of salivary glands. Report of a case in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection and review of the literature,” Recenti Progressi in Medicina, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 585–591, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F. Moccia, E. Tognoni, and P. Boccaccio, “The relationship between splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and chronic liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection,” Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 288–293, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Patriarca, F. Silvestri, R. Fanin, F. Zaja, A. Sperotto, and M. Baccarani, “Long-lasting complete remission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-associated immunocytoma with alpha-interferon treatment,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 370–372, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Casato, C. Mecucci, V. Agnello et al., “Regression of lymphoproliferative disorder after treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in a patient with partial trisomy 3, Bcl-2 overexpression, and type II cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 2259–2261, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. V. Pitini, C. Arrigo, M. Righi, M. Scaffidi, and G. Sturniolo, “Systematic screening for HCV infection should be performed in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 252–253, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Tursi, G. Brandimarte, and M. Torello, “Disappearance of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in hepatitis C virus-positive patients after anti-hepatitis C virus therapy,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 360–363, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Kelaidi, F. Rollot, S. Park et al., “Response to antiviral treatment in hepatitis C virus-associated marginal zone lymphomas,” Leukemia, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1711–1716, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. Vallisa, P. Bernuzzi, L. Arcaini et al., “Role of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in HCV-related, low-grade, B-cell, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a multicenter Italian experience,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 468–473, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. Svoboda, C. Andreadis, L. H. Downs, W. T. Miller, D. E. Tsai, and S. J. Schuster, “Regression of advanced non-splenic marginal zone lymphoma after treatment of hepatitis C virus infection,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1365–1368, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. Oda, T. Kou, M. Watanabe et al., “Regression of B-cell lymphoma of the liver with hepatitis C virus infection after treatment with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1791–1793, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. E. Mauro, M. Pedata, A. Ermacora, and C. Mazzaro, “An additional line of therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin after rituximab in a patient with hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinaemia and indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma previously treated with interferon,” Blood Transfusion, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 101–103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. C. Mazzaro, V. De Re, M. Spina et al., “Pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin for HCV-positive indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 255–257, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. P. Gisbert, L. García-Buey, J. M. Pajares, and R. Moreno-Otero, “Systematic review: regression of lymphoproliferative disorders after treatment for hepatitis C infection,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 653–662, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E. Zuckerman, T. Zuckerman, D. Sahar et al., “The effect of antiviral therapy on t(14;18) translocation and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1555–1559, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Paulli, L. Arcaini, M. Lucioni et al., “Subcutaneous 'lipoma-like' B-cell lymphoma associated with HCV infection: a new presentation of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1189–1195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. Iannitto, E. Ammatuna, C. Tripodo et al., “Long-lasting remission of primary hepatic lymphoma and hepatitis C virus infection achieved by the alpha-interferon treatment,” Hematology Journal, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 530–533, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. M. Levine, S. Shimodaira, and M. M. C. Lai, “Treatment of HCV-related mantle-cell lymphoma with ribavirin and pegylated interferon alfa,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 21, pp. 2078–2079, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. Ennishi, Y. Maeda, N. Niitsu et al., “Hepatic toxicity and prognosis in hepatitis C virus-infected patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy regimens: a Japanese multicenter analysis,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 24, pp. 5119–5125, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. Musto, M. Dell'Olio, A. La Sala, S. Mantuano, and N. Cascavilla, “Diffuse B-large cell lymphomas (DBLCL) with hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection: clinical outcome and preliminary results of a pilot study combining R-CHOP with antiviral therapy,” in Proceedings of the ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts, vol. 106, p. 2447, 2005.
  83. V. La Mura, A. De Renzo, F. Perna et al., “Antiviral therapy after complete response to chemotherapy could be efficacious in HCV-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 49, pp. 557–563, 2008. View at Google Scholar