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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 836485, 32 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/836485
Review Article

The Effects of TLR Activation on T-Cell Development and Differentiation

1Department of Gastroenterology, The 309th Hospital of The People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100091, China
2Department of Infectious Diseases, Naval General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China
3Savient Pharmaceuticals, East Brunswick, NJ 08116, USA

Received 14 November 2011; Accepted 26 January 2012

Academic Editor: Ana Lepique

Copyright © 2012 Bo Jin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Invading pathogens have unique molecular signatures that are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) resulting in either activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and/or costimulation of T cells inducing both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs are also involved in T-cell development and can reprogram Treg cells to become helper cells. T cells consist of various subsets, that is, Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), regulatory T cells (Treg) and these originate from thymic progenitor thymocytes. T-cell receptor (TCR) activation in distinct T-cell subsets with different TLRs results in differing outcomes, for example, activation of TLR4 expressed in T cells promotes suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Treg), while activation of TLR6 expressed in T cells abrogates Treg function. The current state of knowledge of regarding TLR-mediated T-cell development and differentiation is reviewed.