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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 194064, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/194064
Research Article

Low-Dose Amphotericin B and Murine Dialyzable Spleen Extracts Protect against Systemic Candida Infection in Mice

1Department of Immunology, National School of Biological Sciences (ENCB), National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), 11340 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
2Bioprocesses Development and Research Unit (UDIBI), National School of Biological Sciences (ENCB), National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), 11340 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
3Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL), 64460 San Nicolás de los Garza, NL, Mexico
4Laboratory of Psychoimmunology, National Institute of Psychiatry “Ramón de la Fuente”, 14080 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
5Department of Pathology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition “Salvador Zubirán”, 14000 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
6Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL), 64460 San Nicolás de los Garza, NL, Mexico
7Department of Microbiology, National School of Biological Sciences (ENCB), National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), 11340 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 3 July 2013; Accepted 10 August 2013

Academic Editor: Oscar Bottasso

Copyright © 2013 F. Robledo-Ávila et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Candida albicans causes opportunistic systemic infections with high mortality (30%–50%). Despite significant nephrotoxicity, amphotericin (AmB) is still used for the treatment of this serious fungal infection. Therefore, alternative treatments are urgently needed. Dialyzable leukocyte extracts have been used successfully to treat patients with mucocutaneous candidiasis, but their effectiveness in systemic candidiasis has not been evaluated. In this study, low-dose AmB (0.1 mg/kg) plus 10 pg of murine dialyzable spleen extracts (mDSE) were tested in a systemic candidiasis mouse model. Survival, tissue fungal burden, kidney damage, kidney cytokines, and serum levels of IL-6 and hepcidin were evaluated. Our results showed that the combined treatment of low-dose AmB plus mDSE improved survival and reduced kidney fungal burden and histopathology; these effects correlated with increased kidney concentration of IFN-γ and TGF-β1, decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as high levels of systemic IL-6 and hepcidin. Low-dose AmB and mDSE synergized to clear the infectious agent and reduced tissue damage, confirming the efficacy of a low dose of AmB, which might decrease the risk of drug toxicity. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings and its implications in future therapeutic approaches.