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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 210490, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Epidemiology of Human Respiratory Viruses in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Jinan, China

1Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Centre, Key Laboratory for Modern Medicine and Technology of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Virology of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Rare & Uncommon Diseases of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech-Drugs, Ministry of Health, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 18877 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250062, China
2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250200, China
3Department of Laboratory, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250022, China
4School of Dental Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
5Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250062, China
6Respiratory Department, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250022, China

Received 13 July 2013; Revised 22 October 2013; Accepted 6 November 2013

Academic Editor: Mario Clerici

Copyright © 2013 Yanqin Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The viral etiologies of UTRIs and LTRIs in children in Jinan city were investigated between July 2009 and June 2010. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from 397 children with URTIs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens were collected from 323 children with LRTIs. RT-PCR/PCR was used to examine all samples for IFV, PIV, RSV, RV, hMPV, HBoV, CoV, ADV, RSV, and EV. Viral pathogens were detected in 47.10% of URTI samples and 66.57% samples, and the incidence of viral coinfection was 5.29% and 21.05%, respectively. IFV was the most common virus in URTIs, with a detection rate of 19.40%, followed by PIV (10.83%), RV (10.58%), and EV (6.30%). For LRTIs, PIV and RV were both detected in 27% of samples, followed by RSV (9.91%), HBoV (8.36%), IFV (5.57%), and hMPV (5.57%). RSV and HBoV were more prevalent in the youngest children of no more than six months. Meanwhile, RV, PIV, and RSV were the most frequent viruses combined with bacterial pathogens in LRTIs. In conclusion, the spectrum of respiratory virus infections in URTIs and LRTIs differed in terms of the most common pathogens, seasonal distribution, and coinfection rate.