Table 1: Summary of outcomes of lung transplant patients with PTLD from US and European lung transplant centers.

#PTLD totalPTLD incidenceTime to Dx PTLD after transplant Sites of presentationPathologyTreatmentSurvival

Armitage et al. 1991, [5]5/877.9%4 monthsLung, mediastinum, GI tractNARI, surgical resection, CH36% mortality <1 year,
70% mortality >1 year
Aris et al. 1996, [6]6/946.4%4.5 monthsMediastinal mass, tonsil enlargement, lung nodules, bowel obstruction, skin nodulesPolymorphic B cell hyperplasia and lymphoma, monoclonalRI, surgical excision of mediastinal mass, CHAverage survival ~11 months
Wigle et al. 2001, [10]12/2425.0%17.6 monthsLung, mediastinum, abdomenNARI, CH1 year survival rate of 58%
Paranjothi et al. 2001, [8]30/4946.1%402 daysLung, mediastinal lymph nodes, liver, testicle, GI tract, bone marrow, skin, ovaryMonomorphic lymphoma, polymorphic lymphomaRI, surgical resection, rituximab, CHMedian survival 1.0 ± 1.5 years
Ramalingam et al. 2002, [48]8/2443.3%12 monthsLung, small bowel, colon, skinMonomorphic lymphoma, polymorphic lymphomaRI, rituximab, interferon, CH, XRT 5/8 patients died of complications from PTLD
Reams et al. 2003, [9]10/4002.5%343 daysLung, small bowel, liver, periaortic adenopathy, tongue, supraclavicular Monomorphic lymphoma, polymorphic lymphoma, T cell lymphomaRI, rituximab, surgical resection, CH, XRT5/10 survival over 1992–2002 time period
Tsai et al. 2008, [33]17/2068.3%NALung, extranodalMonomorphic lymphomaRI, rituximab, surgical resection, CH, XRTMedian survival 12 months
Knoop et al. 2006, [35]17/224  
8.0%68 monthsLung, mediastinum, cervical nodes, liver, bone marrowMonomorphic lymphomaRI, rituximab4/6 complete remission with relapse free survival of 34 months
Baldanti et al. 2011, [12]5/1114.5%270 daysLung, mediastinumHodgkins, monomorphic lymphomaRI, rituximab, CH4/5 have died
Wudhikarn et al. 2010, [11]29/6395.0%40 monthsLung, GI tract, intraabdominal lymph nodes, CNS, bone marrowMonomorphic lymphoma, Burkitt’s, lymphoid granulomatosis, anaplastic large cellRI, rituximab, surgical resection, CH, XRTMedian survival 10 months
Kremer et al. 2012, [13]35/7054.8%38 monthsLung, GI tract, nasopharynx, skin, CNS, kidney, liverPolymorphic lymphoma, monomorphic lymphomaRI, rituximab, CH, XRTMedian survival 18.5 months

*This study examined 6/17 lung transplant patients with PTLD who received rituximab as a first-line therapy.
RI: reduced immunosuppression; CH: chemotherapy, XRT: radiation therapy.