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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 485213, 10 pages
Research Article

Effects of Muscarinic Acetylcholine 3 Receptor208-227 Peptide Immunization on Autoimmune Response in Nonobese Diabetic Mice

Key Autoimmunity Lab of Inner Mongolia, Institution of Immunology and Rheumatism, Baotou Medical College, No. 41 Lin yin Road, Baotou 014010, China

Received 4 June 2013; Revised 18 November 2013; Accepted 25 November 2013

Academic Editor: Yoshihiko Hoshino

Copyright © 2013 Lin Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The second extracellular loop (LFWQYFVGKRTVPPGECFIQFLSEPTITFGTAI, aa 205–237) of muscarinic acetylcholine 3 receptor (M3R) has been reported to be an epitope for autoantibodies generated during certain autoimmune disorders, including Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Autoantibodies against M3R228–237 have been shown to interfere with the function of M3R. However, few studies have been performed on the M3R205–227 peptide of the second extracellular loop. In the current study, we sought to investigate the effect of M3R208–227 peptide immunization on autoimmune response in NOD/LtJ mice. We synthesized the M3R208–227 peptide and immunized NOD/LtJ mice to investigate whether peptide-specific antibodies could be generated and whether immunization would lead to changes in autoimmune response in NOD/LtJ mice. Our results demonstrate that the secretions of Th-1, Th-2, and Th-17 cytokines are downregulated and lymphocytic infiltration is improved in the salivary glands and lacrimal glands following immunization with M3R208–227 peptide in NOD/LtJ mice, suggesting that peptide immunotherapy using the M3R208–227 peptide may represent a potential therapeutic alternative.