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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 578786, 16 pages
Research Article

Persistent Suppression of Type 1 Diabetes by a Multicomponent Vaccine Containing a Cholera Toxin B Subunit-Autoantigen Fusion Protein and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant

1Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11085 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
2Department of Immunology, Central Veterinary Institute, Tábornok u. 2, 1143 Budapest, Hungary

Received 5 July 2013; Revised 24 August 2013; Accepted 26 August 2013

Academic Editor: Lenin Pavón

Copyright © 2013 Béla Dénes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Data presented here demonstrate multifunctional vaccination strategies that harness vaccinia virus mediated delivery of a gene encoding an immunoenhanced diabetes autoantigen in combination with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) that can maintain safe and durable immunologic homeostasis in NOD mice. Systemic coinoculation of prediabetic mice with recombinant vaccinia virus rVV-CTB::GAD and undiluted or 10-fold diluted CFA demonstrated a significant decrease in hyperglycemia and pancreatic islet inflammation in comparison with control animals during 17–61 and 17–105 weeks of age, respectively. Synergy in these beneficial effects was observed during 43–61 and 61–105 wks of age, respectively. Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in GAD-stimulated splenocytes isolated from vaccinated mice were generally lower than those detected in unvaccinated mice. The overall health and humoral immune responses of the vaccinated animals remained normal throughout the duration of the experiments.