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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 689827, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/689827
Review Article

Regulatory T Cell in Stroke: A New Paradigm for Immune Regulation

1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China
2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 4 July 2013

Academic Editor: Carlos Barcia

Copyright © 2013 Sheng Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Stroke is a common, debilitating trauma that has an incompletely elucidated pathophysiology and lacks an effective therapy. FoxP3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress a variety of normal physiological and pathological immune responses via several pathways, such as inhibitory cytokine secretion, direct cytolysis induction, and antigen-presenting cell functional modulation. FoxP3+CD25+CD4+ Tregs are involved in a variety of central nervous system diseases and injuries, including axonal injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and stroke. Specifically, FoxP3+CD25+CD4+ Tregs exert neuroprotective effects in acute experimental stroke models. These beneficial effects, however, are difficult to elucidate. In this review, we summarized evidence of FoxP3+CD25+CD4+ Tregs as potentially important immunomodulators in stroke pathogenesis and highlight further investigations for possible immunotherapeutic strategies by modulating the quantity and/or functional effects of FoxP3+CD25+CD4+ Tregs in stroke patients.