Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 295092, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/295092
Research Article

Palladium Nanoparticles Induce Disturbances in Cell Cycle Entry and Progression of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Paramount Role of Ions

1Immunotoxicology and Allergy Unit, Ce.S.I., “G. d’Annunzio” University Foundation, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2Department of Medicine and Ageing Science, “G. d’Annunzio” University, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3Unit of General Pathology, Ce.S.I., “G. d’Annunzio” University Foundation and Department of Medicine, Dentistry and Biotechnology, G. d’Annunzio University, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4University of Ulm, Institute for Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 89081 Ulm, Germany
5Laboratorio di Biopatologia Ultrastrutturale, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, 00161 Rome, Italy
6Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China
7Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Sciences, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
8The Protein Factory, Interuniversity Centre Politecnico di Milano, ICRM CNR Milano and University of Insubria, 20131 Milan, Italy

Received 5 March 2014; Revised 6 June 2014; Accepted 8 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: Andrij Holian

Copyright © 2014 Claudia Petrarca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Abthoff, W. Zahn, G. Loose, and A. Hirschmann, “Serial use of palladium for three-way-catalysts with high performance,” Motortechnische Zeitschrift, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 292–297, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc226.htm.
  3. M. Moldovan, M. M. Gómez, and M. A. Palacios, “Determination of platinum, rhodium and palladium in car exhaust fumes,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1163–1169, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. M. Prichard and P. C. Fisher, “Identification of platinum and palladium particles emitted from vehicles and dispersed into the surface environment,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 3149–3154, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. D. Whiteley and F. Murray, “Anthropogenic platinum group element (Pt, Pd and Rh) concentrations in road dusts and roadside soils from Perth, Western Australia,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 317, no. 1–3, pp. 121–135, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Zereini, C. Wiseman, and W. Püttmann, “Changes in palladium, platinum, and rhodium concentrations, and their spatial distribution in soils along a major highway in Germany from 1994 to 2004,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 451–456, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Leopold, M. Maier, S. Weber, and M. Schuster, “Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 341–347, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Schäfer, D. Hannker, J. D. Eckhardt, and D. Stüben, “Uptake of traffic-related heavy metals and platinum group elements (PGE) by plants,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 215, no. 1-2, pp. 59–67, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Sures, S. Zimmermann, J. Messerschmidt, and A. von Bohlen, “Relevance and analysis of traffic related platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) in the aquatic biosphere, with emphasis on palladium,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 385–392, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Zimmermann, J. Messerschmidt, A. Von Bohlen, and B. Sures, “Uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum group metals (Pd, Pt, Rh) from automobile catalytic converter materials by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha),” Environmental Research, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 203–209, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Brasch and J. Geier, “Patch test results in schoolchildren. Results from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) and the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG),” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 286–293, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. F. Filon, D. Uderzo, and E. Bagnato, “Sensitization to palladium chloride: a 10-year evaluation,” American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 78–81, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Wöhrl, W. Hemmer, M. Focke, M. Götz, and R. Jarisch, “Patch testing in children, adults, and the elderly: influence of age and sex on sensitization patterns,” Pediatric Dermatology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 119–123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Santucci, C. Valenzano, M. de Rocco, and A. Cristaudo, “Platinum in the environment: frequency of reactions to platinum-group elements in patients with dermatitis and urticaria,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 333–338, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. J. Linnett and E. G. Hughes, “20 Years of medical surveillance on exposure to allergenic and non-allergenic platinum compounds: the importance of chemical speciation,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 191–196, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Merget and G. Rosner, “Evaluation of the health risk of platinum group metals emitted from automotive catalytic converters,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 270, no. 1–3, pp. 165–173, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Cristaudo, V. Bordignon, F. Petrucci et al., “Release of palladium from biomechanical prostheses in body fluids can induce or support PD-specific IFNγ T cell responses and the clinical setting of a palladium hypersensitivity,” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 605–614, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Iavicoli, G. Carelli, A. Marinaccio et al., “The effects of sub-acute exposure to palladium on cytokines in male Wistar rats,” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 21–24, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. T. Minang, I. Areström, M. Troye-Blomberg, L. Lundeberg, and N. Ahlborg, “Nickel, cobalt, chromium, palladium and gold induce a mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine response in vitro in subjects with contact allergy to the respective metals,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 417–426, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Muris, C. J. Kleverlaan, A. J. Feilzer, and E. Valentine-Thon, “Reactivity to sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2[PdCl 4]) compared to PdCl2 and NiCl2 in lymphocyte proliferation tests,” Allergy, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1152–1156, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Kielhorn, C. Melber, D. Keller, and I. Mangelsdorf, “Palladium—a review of exposure and effects to human health,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 205, no. 6, pp. 417–432, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Boscolo, L. Di Giampaolo, M. Reale et al., “Different effects of platinum, palladium, and rhodium salts on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine release,” Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 299–306, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Di Gioacchino, N. Verna, L. Di Giampaolo et al., “Immunotoxicity and sensitizing capacity of metal compounds depend on speciation,” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 15–22, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Boscolo, V. Bellante, K. Leopold et al., “Effects of palladium nanoparticles on the cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of non-atopic women,” Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 207–214, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Migliore, G. Frenzilli, C. Nesti, S. Fortaner, and E. Sabbioni, “Cytogenetic and oxidative damage induced in human lymphocytes by platinum, rhodium and palladium compounds,” Mutagenesis, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 411–417, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Sabbioni, S. Fortaner, M. Farina et al., “Cytotoxicity and morphological transforming potential of cobalt nanoparticles, microparticles and ions in Balb /3T3 mouse fibroblasts: an in vitro model,” Nanotoxicology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 455–464, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. E. Sabbioni, S. Fortaner, and M. Farina, “Interaction with culture medium components, cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of cobalt nanoparticles, microparticles and ions in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts,” Nanotoxicology, vol. 8, pp. 455–464, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Perconti, G. M. Aceto, F. Verginelli, F. Napolitano, C. Petrarca, and G. Bernardini, “Distinctive gene expression profiles in Balb /3T3 cells exposed to low dose cobalt nanoparticles, microparticles and ions: potential nanotoxicological relevance,” Journal of Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents, vol. 27, pp. 443–454, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  29. K. Leopold, M. Maier, and M. Schuster, “Preparation and characterization of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd nanoparticles as standardized test material for chemical and biochemical studies of traffic related emissions,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 394, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. di Gioacchino, C. Petrarca, A. Perrone et al., “Autophagy as an ultrastructural marker of heavy metal toxicity in human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 392, no. 1, pp. 50–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Malumbres and M. Barbacid, “Cell cycle, CDKs and cancer: a changing paradigm,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 153–166, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Malumbres and A. Carnero, “Cell cycle deregulation: a common motif in cancer,” Progress in cell Cycle Research, vol. 5, pp. 5–18, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Delaval and D. Birnbaum, “A cell cycle hypothesis of cooperative oncogenesis (Review),” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1051–1058, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. M. Yusop, A. Unciti-Broceta, E. M. V. Johansson, R. M. Sánchez-Martín, and M. Bradley, “Palladium-mediated intracellular chemistry,” Nature Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 239–243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. A. Kubli and Å. B. Gustafsson, “Mitochondria and mitophagy: the yin and yang of cell death control,” Circulation Research, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 1208–1221, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Di Gioacchino, C. Petrarca, A. Perrone et al., “Autophagy in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells exposed to heavy metals: biological implications and toxicological relevance,” Autophagy, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 537–539, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Reggiori, M. Komatsu, K. Finley, and A. Simonsen, “Autophagy: more than a nonselective pathway,” International Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 2012, Article ID 219625, 18 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. Surova and B. Zhivotovsky, “Various modes of cell death induced by DNA damage,” Oncogene, vol. 32, no. 33, pp. 3789–3797, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Yang, C. Zhang, and Z. Hu, “Impact of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles on wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion,” Environmental Sciences, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Liou and P. Storz, “Reactive oxygen species in cancer,” Free Radical Research, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 479–496, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Lee, S. Giordano, and J. Zhang, “Autophagy, mitochondria and oxidative stress: cross-talk and redox signalling,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 441, no. 2, pp. 523–540, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Tasdemir, M. C. Maiuri, N. Tajeddine et al., “Cell cycle-dependent induction of autophagy, mitophagy and reticulophagy,” Cell Cycle, vol. 6, no. 18, pp. 2263–2267, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Donjerkovic and D. W. Scott, “Regulation of the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle,” Cell Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus