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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 392170, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/392170
Research Article

Protection against Experimental Melioidosis following Immunisation with a Lipopolysaccharide-Protein Conjugate

1Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK
2Fleet Bioprocessing Ltd., Pale Lane Farm, Hartley Wintney RG27 8DH, UK
3College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK

Received 18 December 2013; Revised 14 March 2014; Accepted 2 April 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Louise Pitt

Copyright © 2014 Andrew E. Scott et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is refractory to antibiotic treatment and there is currently no licensed vaccine. In this report we detail the construction and protective efficacy of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate composed of B. pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide and the fragment of tetanus toxin. Immunisation of mice with the lipopolysaccharide-conjugate led to significantly reduced bacterial burdens in the spleen 48 hours after challenge and afforded significant protection against a lethal challenge with B. pseudomallei. The conjugate generated significantly higher levels of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a than in lipopolysaccharide-immunised mice. Immunisation with the conjugate also demonstrated a bias towards Th1 type responses, evidenced by high levels of IgG2a. In contrast, immunisation with unconjugated lipopolysaccharide evoked almost no IgG2a demonstrating a bias towards Th2 type responses. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach in the development of an efficacious and protective vaccine against melioidosis.