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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 407430, 8 pages
Research Article

Infection and HLA-G Molecules in Nasal Polyposis

1Section of Microbiology and Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Luigi Borsari, 46, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2Operative Unit of Otolaryngology, St. Anna Hospital, Via A. Moro, 844124 Ferrara, Italy
3Operative Unit of Neuroradiology, St. Anna Hospital, Via A. Moro, 844124 Ferrara, Italy

Received 6 December 2013; Accepted 23 January 2014; Published 6 March 2014

Academic Editor: Nathalie Rouas-Freiss

Copyright © 2014 Roberta Rizzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sinonasal polyposis (SNP) is a chronic inflammatory pathology with an unclear aetiopathogenesis. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one candidate for the development of SNP for its epithelial cell trophism, hyperproliferative effect, and the induction of immune-modulatory molecules as HLA-G. We enrolled 10 patients with SNP without concomitant allergic diseases (SNP-WoAD), 10 patients with SNP and suffering from allergic diseases (SNP-WAD), and 10 control subjects who underwent rhinoplasty. We analyzed the presence of high- and low-risk HPV DNA and the expression of membrane HLA-G (mHLA-G) and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) and of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) and IL-10 by polyp epithelial cells. The results showed the presence of HPV-11 in 50% of SNP-WoAD patients (OR:5.5), all characterized by a relapsing disease. HPV-11 infection was absent in nonrelapsing SNP-WoAD patients, in SNP-WAD patients and in controls, supporting the hypothesis that HPV-11 increases risk of relapsing disease. HPV-11 positive SNP-WoAD patients presented with mHLA-G and IL-10R on epithelial cells from nasal polyps and showed secretion of sHLA-G and IL-10 in culture supernatants. No HLA-G expression was observed in HPV negative polyps. These data highlight new aspects of polyposis aetiopathogenesis and suggest HPV-11 and HLA-G/IL-10 presence as prognostic markers in the follow-up of SNP-WoAD.