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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 515984, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/515984
Research Article

Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Induces Epithelial IL-8 Production via p38-MAPK Signalling

Department of Virology and Mycology Research, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases “Ismael Cosio Villegas”, Calzada de Tlalpan 4502, Colonia Sección XVI, Delegación Tlalpan, 14080 México, DF, Mexico

Received 12 December 2013; Revised 11 May 2014; Accepted 23 May 2014; Published 11 June 2014

Academic Editor: Michael H. Kershaw

Copyright © 2014 Miguel Ángel Galván Morales et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) is the most common cause of croup in infants. The aim of this study was to describe molecular mechanisms associated with IL-8 production during HPIV-1 infection and the role of viral replication in MAPK synthesis and activation. An in vitro model of HPIV-1 infection in the HEp-2 and A549 cell lines was used; a kinetic-based ELISA for IL-8 detection was also used, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was identified by Western blot analysis, and specific inhibitors for each kinase were used to identify which MAPK was involved. Inactivated viruses were used to assess whether viral replication is required for IL-8 production. Results revealed a gradual increase in IL-8 production at different selected times, when phosphorylation of MAPK was detected. The secretion of IL-8 in the two cell lines infected with the HPIV-1 is related to the phosphorylation of the MAPK as well as viral replication. Inhibition of p38 suppressed the secretion of IL-8 in the HEp-2 cells. No kinase activation was observed when viruses were inactivated.