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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 569819, 11 pages
Review Article

Monocytes as Regulators of Inflammation and HIV-Related Comorbidities during cART

1Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica
2Centre for Biomedical Research, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, GPO Box 2284, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
3School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
4Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
5Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia

Received 6 March 2014; Accepted 15 May 2014; Published 12 June 2014

Academic Editor: Graham Ogg

Copyright © 2014 Joshua J. Anzinger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) extends the lifespan and the quality of life for HIV-infected persons but does not completely eliminate chronic immune activation and inflammation. The low level of chronic immune activation persisting during cART-treated HIV infection is associated with the development of diseases which usually occur in the elderly. Although T-cell activation has been extensively examined in the context of cART-treated HIV infection, monocyte activation is only beginning to be recognized as an important source of inflammation in this context. Here we examine markers and sources of monocyte activation during cART-treated HIV infection and discuss the role of monocytes during cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and innate immune aging.