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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 614591, 6 pages
Review Article

Rheumatic Fever Associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Systematic Review

1Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, 41810080 Salvador, BA, Brazil
2Rheumatology Division, Centro Médico do Hospital Aliança, Rua das Violetas 42, AP. 502, 41810080 Salvador, BA, Brazil

Received 3 December 2013; Accepted 24 March 2014; Published 22 April 2014

Academic Editor: Yehuda Shoenfeld

Copyright © 2014 Felipe da Silva and Jozélio de Carvalho. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To evaluate the clinical associations between rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome and the impact of coexistence of these two diseases in an individual. Methods. Systematic review in electronics databases, regarding the period from 1983 to 2012. The keywords: “Rheumatic Fever,” “Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” and “Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome” are used. Results. were identified 11 cases described in the literature about the association of rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome. Clinical presentation of rheumatic fever was characterized by the predominance of carditis (11/11) and chorea (7/11). Regarding the manifestations of APS, the stroke was observed in 7/11 (63.6%), with one of them having probable embolic origin. Conclusion. The present study brings the information that the association between APS and RF is quite rare, however, is of great clinical importance. Doctors who deal with the RF should include in their differential diagnosis the APS, especially in the presence of stroke in patients with RF and whose echocardiogram does not show intracavitary thrombi.