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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 621270, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/621270
Review Article

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

1Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, 40290-000 Salvador, BA, Brazil
2Rheumatology Division, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Rheumatology Division, Centro Médico do Hospital Aliança, 41810-080 Salvador, BA, Brazil

Received 25 March 2014; Revised 28 May 2014; Accepted 11 June 2014; Published 13 July 2014

Academic Editor: Yehuda Shoenfeld

Copyright © 2014 Felipe Freire da Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.