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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 796856, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/796856
Review Article

Current Vaccine Trials in Glioblastoma: A Review

1Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94304, USA
2Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA

Received 15 October 2013; Revised 12 January 2014; Accepted 28 February 2014; Published 3 April 2014

Academic Editor: Nathalie Cools

Copyright © 2014 Linda W. Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, and despite aggressive therapy with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, average survival remains at about 1.5 years. The highly infiltrative and invasive nature of GBM requires that alternative treatments for this disease be widespread and targeted to tumor cells. Immunotherapy in the form of tumor vaccines has the potential to meet this need. Vaccines against GBM hold the promise of triggering specific and systemic antitumor immune responses that may be the key to eradicating this unrelenting cancer. In this review, we will discuss past and present clinical trials of various GBM vaccines and their potential impact on the future care of GBM patients. There have been many promising phase I and phase II GBM vaccine studies that have led to ongoing and upcoming phase III trials. If the results of these randomized trials show a survival benefit, immunotherapy will become a standard part of the treatment of this devastating disease.