Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 906532, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/906532
Research Article

Autoantibody Response to Murine Double Minute 2 Protein in Immunodiagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Beijing You’an Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 10069, China
2Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA

Received 20 January 2014; Accepted 17 April 2014; Published 14 May 2014

Academic Editor: Takami Sato

Copyright © 2014 Mei Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. X. Bosch, J. Ribes, M. Díaz, and R. Cléries, “Primary liver cancer: worldwide incidence and trends,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. S5–S16, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Marrero, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 248–253, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 74–108, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T.-J. Song, E. W. K. Ip, and Y. Fong, “Hepatocellular carcinoma: current surgical management,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. S248–S260, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. D. Oliner, K. W. Kinzler, P. S. Meltzer, D. L. George, and B. Vogelstein, “Amplification of a gene encoding a p53-associated protein in human sarcomas,” Nature, vol. 358, no. 6381, pp. 80–83, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. A. Freedman, L. Wu, and A. J. Levine, “Functions of the MDM2 oncoprotein,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 96–107, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J.-P. Kruse and W. Gu, “Modes of p53 Regulation,” Cell, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 609–622, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. V. Wang, M. Wade, E. Wong, Y.-C. Li, L. W. Rodewald, and G. M. Wahl, “Quantitative analyses reveal the importance of regulated Hdmx degradation for P53 activation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 30, pp. 12365–12370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Wade, Y. V. Wang, and G. M. Wahl, “The p53 orchestra: mdm2 and Mdmx set the tone,” Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 299–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Itahana, H. Mao, A. Jin et al., “Targeted inactivation of Mdm2 RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in the mouse reveals mechanistic insights into p53 regulation,” Cancer Cell, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 355–366, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Wade, Y. C. Li, and G. M. Wahl, “MDM2, MDMX and p53 in oncogenesis and cancer therapy,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 83–96, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. V. A. Flørenes, G. M. Moelandsmo, A. Forus, A. Andreassen, O. Myklebost, and O. Fodstad, “MDM2 gene amplification and transcript levels in human sarcomas: relationship to TP53 gene status,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 86, no. 17, pp. 1297–1302, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Lianes, I. Orlow, Z.-F. Zhang et al., “Altered patterns of MDM2 and TP53 expression in human bladder cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 86, no. 17, pp. 1325–1330, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Yoshida, T. Ushiku, T. Motoi et al., “MDM2 and CDK4 immunohistochemical coexpression in high-grade osteosarcoma: correlation with a dedifferentiated subtype,” The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 423–431, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Choschzick, U. Heilenkötter, A. Lebeau et al., “MDM2 amplification is an independent prognostic feature of node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer,” Cancer Biomarkers, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 53–60, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Benvegnù, M. Gios, S. Boccato, and A. Alberti, “Natural history of compensated viral cirrhosis: a prospective study on the incidence and hierarchy of major complications,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 744–749, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. M. Llovet, A. Burroughs, and J. Bruix, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9399, pp. 1907–1917, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. J. Johnson, N. Leung, P. Cheng et al., “‘Hepatoma-specific’ alphafetoprotein may permit preclinical diagnosis of malignant change in patients with chronic liver disease,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 236–240, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. J.-Y. Zhang, C. A. Casiano, X.-X. Peng, J. A. Koziol, E. K. L. Chan, and E. M. Tan, “Enhancement of antibody detection in cancer using panel of recombinant tumor-associated antigens,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 136–143, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J.-Y. Zhang, R. Megliorino, X.-X. Peng, E. M. Tan, Y. Chen, and E. K. L. Chan, “Antibody detection using tumor-associated antigen mini-array in immunodiagnosing human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 107–114, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J.-Y. Zhang, E. K. L. Chan, X.-X. Peng, and E. M. Tan, “A novel cytoplasmic protein with RNA-binding motifs is an autoantigen in human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 189, no. 7, pp. 1101–1110, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. S. Hoo, J. Y. Zhang, and E. K. L. Chan, “Cloning and characterization of a novel 90 kDa “companion” auto-antigen of p62 overexpressed in cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 21, no. 32, pp. 5006–5015, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. S. Looi, E. S. Nakayasu, R. A. de Diaz, E. M. Tan, I. C. Almeida, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Using proteomic approach to identify tumor-associated antigens as markers in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 4004–4012, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Zhang, S. S. Liu, L. Dai, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Using proteomic approach to identify tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2863–2872, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Chen, Y. Zhou, S. Qiu et al., “Autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens combined with abnormal alpha-fetoprotein enhance immunodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Cancer Letters, vol. 289, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J.-Y. Zhang, “Mini-array of multiple tumor-associated antigens to enhance autoantibody detection for immunodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 143–148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Chen, V. Marechal, and A. J. Levine, “Mapping of the p53 and mdm-2 interaction domains,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 4107–4114, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Haupt, R. Maya, A. Kazaz, and M. Oren, “Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53,” Nature, vol. 387, no. 6630, pp. 296–299, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. Q. W. Chen, H. Chen, J. S. Cheng, and Z. Q. Meng, “MDM2 SNP309T > G polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis,” Tumor Biology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. P. Deb, “Function and dysfunction of the human oncoprotein MDM2,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. d235–d243, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Tomoda, K. Nouso, A. Sakai et al., “Genetic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C virus: a case control study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 797–804, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. Y. Liu, S. Kuang, J. Zheng et al., “Murine double minute 2 rs2279744 polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in East Asians: a meta-analysis,” Tumor Biology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 961–965, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. S. Ezzikouri, A. E. El Feydi, R. Afifi et al., “MDM2 SNP309T > G polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control analysis in a Moroccan population,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 380–385, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. J. Yoon, H. Y. Chang, S. H. Ahn et al., “MDM2 and p53 polymorphisms are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1192–1196, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Dharel, N. Kato, R. Muroyama et al., “MDM2 promoter SNP309 is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 16, pp. 4867–4871, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. di Vuolo, L. Buonaguro, F. Izzo et al., “TP53 and MDM2 gene polymorphisms and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among Italian patients,” Infectious Agents and Cancer, vol. 6, article 13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Akkiz, A. T. Sümbül, S. Bayram, A. Bekar, and E. Akgöllü, “MDM2 promoter polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in Turkish population,” Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 448–452, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Acun, E. Terzioǧlu-Kara, O. Konu, M. Ozturk, and M. C. Yakicier, “Mdm2 Snp309 G allele displays high frequency and inverse correlation with somatic P53 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Mutation Research, vol. 684, no. 1-2, pp. 106–108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Q. Peng, X. Lao, Z. Chen et al., “TP53 and MDM2 gene polymorphisms, gene-gene interaction, and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: evidence from an updated meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, Article ID e82773, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. Y. Yang, T. Xia, N. Li et al., “Combined effects of p53 and MDM2 polymorphisms on susceptibility and surgical prognosis in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma,” Protein & Cell, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 71–81, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. X. Wang, X. Zhang, B. Qiu et al., “MDM2 SNP309T > G polymorphism increases susceptibility to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a northeast Han Chinese population,” Liver International, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1172–1178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. Y. Y. Zhao, Y. G. Li, Y. J. Sun et al., “ShRNA-mediated silencing of MDM2 inhibits growth of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells xenografted in nude mice,” Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 213–217, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. Wang, T. Zheng, X. Chen et al., “MDM2 antagonist can inhibit tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma with different types of p53 in vitro,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 371–377, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Schöniger-Hekele, S. Hänel, F. Wrba, and C. Müller, “Hepatocellular carcinoma—survival and clinical characteristics in relation to various histologic molecular markers in Western patients,” Liver International, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S.-J. Qiu, S.-L. Ye, Z.-Q. Wu, Z.-Y. Tang, and Y.-K. Liu, “The expression of the mdm2 gene may be related to the aberration of the p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 253–258, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Qiu, S. Ye, and Z. Wu, “The expression of mdm2 gene related to the invasiveness of human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 256–259, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  47. S. Shangary and S. Wang, “Small-molecule inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 protein-protein interaction to reactivate p53 function: a novel approach for cancer therapy,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 223–241, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Endo, T. Ueda, T. Ohta, and T. Terada, “Protein expression of MDM2 and its clinicopathological relationships in human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Liver, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 209–215, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M.-F. Zhang, Z.-Y. Zhang, J. Fu, Y.-F. Yang, and J.-P. Yun, “Correlation between expression of p53, p21/WAF1, and MDM2 proteins and their prognostic significance in primary hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, article 110, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. J. Song, Y. Fong, S. J. Cho et al., “Comparison of hepatocellular carcinoma in American and Asian patients by tissue array analysis,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. D. Dong, X. Gao, Z. Zhu, Q. Yub, S. Biana, and Y. Gao, “A 40-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the constitutive promoter of MDM2 confers risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population,” Gene, vol. 497, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar