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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 106904, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/106904
Research Article

The Value of a Panel of Autoantibodies for Predicting the Activity of Lupus Nephritis at Time of Renal Biopsy

1Division of Nephrology, Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore, Mangiagalli, Regina Elena, 20122 Milano, Italy
2Department of Informatics, Università degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3Institute of Microbiology, Azienda Ospedaliera, Ospedale San Carlo Borromeo, 20153 Milano, Italy
4Renal Unit and Clinical Immunology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera, Ospedale San Carlo Borromeo, 20153 Milano, Italy

Received 3 December 2014; Accepted 16 February 2015

Academic Editor: Douglas C. Hooper

Copyright © 2015 Gabriella Moroni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Few studies have correlated serum biomarkers with renal histology, the gold standard for renal activity, in lupus nephritis (LN). We tested a panel of autoantibodies and complement at the time of kidney biopsy and after treatment. Anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome, anti-ribosome P, and anti-C1q antibodies and C3/C4 were measured in 107 patients with LN at the time of renal biopsy and after 6–12 months and were correlated with clinical/histological parameters. At multivariate analysis, high titers of anti-C1q antibodies or of anti-dsDNA antibodies (, OR = 8.67, CI: 2.03–37.3) were the independent predictors that discriminate proliferative from nonproliferative LN. All the immunological parameters, except anti-ribosome, showed a significant correlation with activity index but not with chronicity index. Only anti-C1q showed a significant correlation with the amount of proteinuria (, ). None of the immunological parameters were predictive of remission at 6 and 12 months. We found that anti-C1q alone or in combination with anti-dsDNA emerged as the most reliable test in differentiating proliferative and nonproliferative LN. Anti-C1q was the only test correlated with the clinical presentation of LN. After treatment, the titre of the autoantibodies was significantly reduced, but none was predictive of remission.