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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 128616, 8 pages
Research Article

The Maternal Cytokine and Chemokine Profile of Naturally Conceived Gestations Is Mainly Preserved during In Vitro Fertilization and Egg Donation Pregnancies

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University & Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Valencia General University Hospital, 46014 Valencia, Spain
3Valencian Infertility Institute, University of Valencia, 46015 Valencia, Spain
4Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
5Biostatistics Department, La Fe Health Research Institute, University & Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain
6Cytomics Laboratory, Príncipe Felipe Research Centre, 46012 Valencia, Spain

Received 31 March 2015; Accepted 22 July 2015

Academic Editor: Jacek Tabarkiewicz

Copyright © 2015 Alicia Martínez-Varea et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This prospective longitudinal study aimed at comparing maternal immune response among naturally conceived (NC; ), in vitro fertilization (IVF; ), and egg donation (ED; ) pregnancies. The main outcome measures were, firstly, to follow up plasma levels of interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL17, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ), regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α), and decidual granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) during the three trimesters of pregnancy during the three trimesters of pregnancy; secondly, to evaluate if the cytokine and chemokine pattern of ED pregnant women differs from that of those with autologous oocytes and, thirdly, to assess if women with preeclampsia show different cytokine and chemokine profile throughout pregnancy versus women with uneventful pregnancies. Pregnant women in the three study groups displayed similar cytokine and chemokine pattern throughout pregnancy. The levels of all quantified cytokines and chemokines, except RANTES, TNFα, IL8, TGFβ, and SDF1α, rose in the second trimester compared with the first, and these higher values remained in the third trimester. ED pregnancies showed lower SDF1α levels in the third trimester compared with NC and IVF pregnancies. Patients who developed preeclampsia displayed higher SDF1α plasma levels in the third trimester.