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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 143526, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/143526
Review Article

The Impact of Immune System in Regulating Bone Metastasis Formation by Osteotropic Tumors

1Department of Orthopedics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
2CeRMS, San Giovanni Battista General Hospital, University of Turin, Via Santena 5, 10126 Turin, Italy

Received 13 October 2014; Accepted 2 December 2014

Academic Editor: Roberta Faccio

Copyright © 2015 Lucia D’Amico and Ilaria Roato. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bone metastases are frequent and debilitating consequence for many tumors, such as breast, lung, prostate, and kidney cancer. Many studies report the importance of the immune system in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis. Indeed, bone and immune system are strictly linked to each other because bone regulates the hematopoietic stem cells from which all cells of the immune system derive, and many immunoregulatory cytokines influence the fate of bone cells. Furthermore, both cytokines and factors produced by immune and bone cells promote the growth of tumor cells in bone, contributing to supporting the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the interactions among bone, immune, and tumor cells aiming to provide an overview of the osteoimmunology field in bone metastasis from solid tumors.