(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 5: Analysis of cytokine production by CD8+ T cells at the single-cell level. (a) Frequencies of activated Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells producing any of the 3 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF-α) cells in active TB patients (), in LTBI patients (), and in healthy controls () are show. ((b), (c), and (d)) Frequency of “total IFN-γ+,” “total IL-2+,” and “total TNF-α+ Mtb-specific CD8+ T in active TB patients (), in LTBI patients (), and in healthy controls () is shown. Horizontal bars represent the median values. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with Dunn’s posttest comparison and significant differences are indicated by asterisks ().