Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 257879, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/257879
Review Article

Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

1Section of Dermatology, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari, 11 Piazza Giulio Cesare, 70124 Bari, Italy
2Section of Dermatology, Vito Fazzi Hospital, Piazza Filippo Muratore, 73100 Lecce, Italy

Received 24 September 2014; Accepted 9 January 2015

Academic Editor: Marco Antonio Velasco-Velázquez

Copyright © 2015 Michelangelo Vestita et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Zeppa, V. Bellini, and P. Lisi, “Atopic dermatitis in adults,” Dermatitis, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Boguniewicz and D. Y. M. Leung, “Atopic dermatitis: a disease of altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 233–246, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Mrabet-Dahbi and M. Maurer, “Innate immunity in atopic dermatitis,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 41, pp. 104–111, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. F. Alendar, “Correlation between clinical symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children and serum IgE level,” Medicinski Arhiv, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 168–169, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. T. Cantorna and B. D. Mahon, “Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 229, no. 11, pp. 1136–1142, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. E. Lange, A. Litonjua, C. M. Hawrylowicz, and S. Weiss, “Vitamin D, the immune system and asthma,” Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 693–702, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Annesi-Maesano, “Perinatal events, vitamin D, and the development of allergy,” Pediatric Research, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Misra, D. Pacaud, A. Petryk, P. F. Collett-Solberg, and M. Kappy, “Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 398–417, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Reichrath, “Vitamin D and the skin: an ancient friend, revisited,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 618–625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Y. Matsuoka, L. Ide, J. Wortsman, J. A. MacLaughlin, and M. F. Holick, “Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1165–1168, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Absoud, C. Cummins, M. J. Lim, E. Wassmer, and N. Shaw, “Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in children: a great britain population based study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 7, Article ID e22179, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. F. Holick, N. C. Binkley, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari et al., “Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 1911–1930, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. J. Rosen, “Vitamin D insufficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 3, pp. 248–254, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. F. Holick, “Medical progress: vitamin D deficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 3, pp. 266–281, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. L. Mulligan, S. K. Felton, A. E. Riek, and C. Bernal-Mizrachi, “Implications of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and lactation,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 202, no. 5, pp. 429.e1–429.e9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. L. Wagner, F. R. Greer, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding, and American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, “Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 1142–1152, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. I. Székely and Á. Pataki, “Effects of vitamin D on immune disorders with special regard to asthma, COPD and autoimmune diseases: a short review,” Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 683–704, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. R. Baker, D. P. McDonnell, M. Hughes et al., “Cloning and expression of full-length cDNA encoding human vitamin D receptor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 3294–3298, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. K. Bhalla, E. P. Amento, T. L. Clemens, M. F. Holick, and S. M. Krane, “Specific high-affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: presence in monocytes and induction in T lymphocytes following activation,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1308–1310, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Adorini, G. Penna, N. Giarratana, and M. Uskokovic, “Tolerogenic dendritic cells induced by vitamin D receptor ligands enhance regulatory T cells inhibiting allograft rejection and autoimmune diseases,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 227–233, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. S. Wintergerst, S. Maggini, and D. H. Hornig, “Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 301–323, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Boonstra, F. J. Barrat, C. Crain, V. L. Heath, H. F. J. Savelkoul, and A. O'Garra, “1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has a direct effect on naive CD4+ T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 9, pp. 4974–4980, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Schauber and R. L. Gallo, “The vitamin D pathway: a new target for control of the skin's immune response?” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 633–639, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Schauber, R. A. Dorschner, A. B. Coda et al., “Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 803–811, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Oren, A. Banerji, and C. A. Camargo Jr., “Vitamin D and atopic disorders in an obese population screened for vitamin D deficiency,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 533–534, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. G. Peroni, G. L. Piacentini, E. Cametti, I. Chinellato, and A. L. Boner, “Correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and severity of atopic dermatitis in children,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 1078–1082, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. A. El Taieb, H. M. Fayed, S. S. Aly, and A. K. Ibrahim, “Assessment of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children with atopic dermatitis: correlation with SCORAD index,” Dermatitis, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 296–301, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. S. Wang, K. L. Hon, A. P.-S. Kong, H. N.-H. Pong, G. W.-K. Wong, and T. F. Leung, “Vitamin D deficiency is associated with diagnosis and severity of childhood atopic dermatitis,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. D. C. Mesquita, A. C. D. S. M. Igreja, and I. M. C. Costa, “Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies,” Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 945–953, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. Bäck, H. K. Blomquist, O. Hernell, and B. Stenberg, “Does vitamin D intake during infancy promote the development of atopic allergy?” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. Heimbeck, M. Wjst, and C. J. Apfelbacher, “Low vitamin D serum level is inversely associated with eczema in children and adolescents in Germany,” Allergy, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 906–910, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. E. Chiu, P. L. Havens, D. H. Siegel et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration does not correlate with atopic dermatitis severity,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. A. Benson, J. A. Toh, N. Vernon, and S. P. Jariwala, “The role of vitamin D in the immunopathogenesis of allergic skin diseases,” Allergy, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 296–301, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Hyppönen, D. J. Berry, M. Wjst, and C. Power, “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and IgE—a significant but nonlinear relationship,” Allergy, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 613–620, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Kuzume and M. Kusu, “Before-birth climatologic data may play a role in the development of allergies in infants,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 281–287, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. K. Weiland, A. Hüsing, D. P. Strachan, P. Rzehak, and N. Pearce, “Climate and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema in children,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 609–615, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J.-W. Oh, “The clinical impact of vitamin D in children with atopic dermatitis,” Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 179–180, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. P. Thyssen, B. Thuesen, C. Huth et al., “Skin barrier abnormality caused by filaggrin (FLG) mutations is associated with increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1204–1207, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. A. Lee, S. Hong, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, and H. Y. Yum, “Correlation between serum vitamin D level and the severity of atopic dermatitis associated with food sensitization,” Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 207–210, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. S. Mohiuddin, D. Curran-Everett, and D. Y. M. Leung, “Vitamin D and food allergy in patients with severe atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 132, no. 4, p. 1011, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Akan, D. Azkur, T. Ginis et al., “Vitamin D level in children is correlated with severity of atopic dermatitis but only in patients with allergic sensitizations,” Pediatric Dermatology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 359–363, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. F. Stalder, A. Taieb, D. J. Atherton et al., “Severity scoring of atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index. Consensus report of the European task force on atopic dermatitis,” Dermatology, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 23–31, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. A. Camargo Jr., S. L. Rifas-Shiman, A. A. Litonjua et al., “Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 788–795, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. R. Gale, S. M. Robinson, N. C. Harvey et al., “Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 68–77, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Miyake, S. Sasaki, K. Tanaka, and Y. Hirota, “Dairy food, calcium and vitamin D intake in pregnancy, and wheeze and eczema in infants,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1228–1234, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. M. Willers, G. Devereux, L. C. A. Craig et al., “Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and asthma, respiratory and atopic symptoms in 5-year-old children,” Thorax, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 773–779, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. Baïz, P. Dargent-Molina, J. D. Wark, J.-C. Souberbielle, and I. Annesi-Maesano, “Cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of early childhood transient wheezing and atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 147–153, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. P. Jones, D. Palmer, G. Zhang, and S. L. Prescott, “Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and allergic disease during infancy,” Pediatrics, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. e1128–e1135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Zittermann, J. Dembinski, and P. Stehle, “Low vitamin D status is associated with low cord blood levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 242–246, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Chi, J. Wildfire, R. Mcloughlin et al., “Umbilical cord plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and immune function at birth: the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma study,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 842–850, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. I. Kull, M. Böhme, C.-F. Wahlgren, L. Nordvall, G. Pershagen, and M. Wickman, “Breast-feeding reduces the risk for childhood eczema,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 657–661, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. Norizoe, N. Akiyama, T. Segawa et al., “Increased food allergy and vitamin D: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Pediatrics International, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. D. Milner, D. M. Stein, R. McCarter, and R. Y. Moon, “Early infant multivitamin supplementation is associated with increased risk for food allergy and asthma,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Heine, K. Anton, B. M. Henz, and M. Worm, “1α, 25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 inhibits anti-CD40 plus IL-4-mediated IgE production in vitro,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 3395–3404, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. S. S. Wang, K. L. Hon, A. P. S. Kong et al., “Eczema phenotypes are associated with multiple vitamin D pathway genes in Chinese children,” Allergy, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 118–124, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. L. van Belle, C. Gysemans, and C. Mathieu, “Vitamin D in autoimmune, infectious and allergic diseases: a vital player?” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 617–632, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. H. Poon, C. Laprise, M. Lemire et al., “Association of vitamin D receptor genetic variants with susceptibility to asthma and atopy,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 170, no. 9, pp. 967–973, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. A. Raby, R. Lazarus, E. K. Silverman et al., “Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with childhood and adult asthma,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 170, no. 10, pp. 1057–1065, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. Solvoll, E. Søyland, B. Sandstad, and C. A. Drevon, “Dietary habits among patient with atopic dermatitis,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 93–97, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Sidbury, A. F. Sullivan, R. I. Thadhani, and C. A. Camargo Jr., “Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation for winter-related atopic dermatitis in Boston: a pilot study,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 245–247, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. H. Javanbakht, S. A. Keshavarz, M. Djalali et al., “Randomized controlled trial using vitamins e and D supplementation in atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 144–150, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Amestejani, B. S. Salehi, M. Vasigh et al., “Vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a clinical trial study,” Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 327–330, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. R. Hata, P. Kotol, M. Jackson et al., “Administration of oral vitamin D induces cathelicidin production in atopic individuals,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 829–831, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Mallbris, L. Carlén, T. Wei et al., “Injury downregulates the expression of the human cathelicidin protein hCAP18/LL-37 in atopic dermatitis,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 442–449, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F. J. Bath-Hextall, C. Jenkinson, R. Humphreys, and H. C. Williams, “Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2, Article ID CD005205, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Z. Samochocki, J. Bogaczewicz, R. Jeziorkowska et al., “Vitamin D effects in atopic dermatitis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 238–244, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Borzutzky, F. Grob, C. A. Camargo Jr., and A. Martinez-Aguayo, “Vitamin D deficiency rickets in an adolescent with severe atopic dermatitis,” Pediatrics, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. e451–e454, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. Vähävihu, L. Ylianttila, R. Salmelin et al., “Heliotherapy improves vitamin D balance and atopic dermatitis,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 1323–1328, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Vähävihu, M. Ala-Houhala, M. Peric et al., “Narrowband ultraviolet B treatment improves vitamin D balance and alters antimicrobial peptide expression in skin lesions of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 321–328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. J. Turner, S. C. Dasilva-Arnold, Q. Yi, P. Mehrotra, M. H. Kaplan, and J. B. Travers, “Topical application of a vitamin D analogue exacerbates atopic dermatitis and induces the atopic dermatitis-like phenotype in stat6VT mice,” Pediatric Dermatology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 574–578, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Li, P. Hener, Z. Zhang, S. Kato, D. Metzger, and P. Chambon, “Topical vitamin D3 and low-calcemic analogs induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin in mouse keratinocytes and trigger an atopic dermatitis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 31, pp. 11736–11741, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Li, P. Hener, Z. Zhang, K. P. Ganti, D. Metzger, and P. Chambon, “Induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression in keratinocytes is necessary for generating an atopic dermatitis upon application of the active vitamin D3 analogue MC903 on mouse skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 498–502, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus