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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 316364, 20 pages
Research Article

Development of Nonaggregating Poly-A Tailed Immunostimulatory A/D Type CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Applicable for Clinical Use

1Laboratory of Adjuvant Innovation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085, Japan
2Laboratory of Vaccine Science, Immunology Frontier Research Center (iFReC), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
3Vaccine Dynamics Project, BIKEN Innovative Vaccine Research Alliance Laboratories, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases (RIMD), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
4Laboratory of Supramolecular Crystallography, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
5GeneDesign Inc., Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085, Japan
6Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0135, Japan
7Corporation for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0843, Japan
8Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0843, Japan
9Laboratory of Malaria Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center (iFReC), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Received 26 March 2015; Accepted 18 April 2015

Academic Editor: Diana Boraschi

Copyright © 2015 Taiki Aoshi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Immunostimulatory CpG ODNs have been developed and utilized as TLR9-dependent innate immune activators and vaccine adjuvants. Four different types of immunostimulatory CpG ODNs (A/D, B/K, C, and P type) have been reported. A/D type ODNs are characterized by high IFN-α production but intrinsically form aggregates, hindering its good manufacturing practice grade preparation. In this study, we developed several D35-derived ODNs (a commonly used A/D type ODN), which were modified with the addition of a phosphorothioate polynucleotide tail (such as dAs40), and examined their physical properties, solubility in saline, immunostimulatory activity on human PBMCs, and vaccine adjuvant potential in monkeys. We found that two modified ODNs including D35-dAs40 and D35core-dAs40 were immunostimulatory, similar to original D35 in human PBMCs, resulting in high IFN-α secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Physical property analysis by dynamic light scattering revealed that both D35-dAs40 and D35core-dAs40 did not form aggregates in saline, which is currently impossible for the original D35. Furthermore, D35-dAs40 and D35core-dAs40 worked as better vaccine adjuvant in monkeys. These results suggested that D35-dAs40 and D35core-dAs40 are two promising prototypes of nonaggregating A/D type ODN with advantages of ease of drug preparation for clinical applications as vaccine adjuvants or IFN-α inducing immunomodifiers.