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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 424860, 12 pages
Review Article

Progress and Challenges toward the Development of Vaccines against Avian Infectious Bronchitis

1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Animal Health and Fisheries Development, PMB 2109, Usman Faruk Secretariat, Sokoto 840221, Sokoto State, Nigeria
3Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Virus-Associated Tumours (F100), German Cancer Research Centre, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Received 27 December 2014; Revised 20 March 2015; Accepted 23 March 2015

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2015 Faruku Bande et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes.