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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 489758, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/489758
Review Article

Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

1Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Juan Badiano No. 1, Colonia Sección XVI, 14080 Delegación Tlalpan, DF, Mexico City, Mexico
2Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Avenida Agustín Melgar No. 3, 24030 Campeche, CAM, Mexico
3Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y Avenida San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla, PUE, Mexico

Received 3 March 2015; Revised 21 April 2015; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Xiao-Feng Yang

Copyright © 2015 Olivia Rodríguez-Morales et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.