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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 501361, 7 pages
Review Article

Interactions between Innate Immunity, Microbiota, and Probiotics

1Digestive Endoscopy & Nutrition Unit, “S. Eugenio” Hospital, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00144 Rome, Italy
2Division of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, “Cristo Re” Hospital, Via delle Calasanziane 25, 00167 Rome, Italy
3Clinical Nutrition Unit, “S. Eugenio” Hospital, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00144 Rome, Italy
4Clinical Nutrition Unit, “Umberto I” Hospital, Viale del Policliniuco 185, 00186 Rome, Italy
5Division of Internal Medicine, “S. Eugenio” Hospital, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00144 Rome, Italy
6Division of Gastroenterology, ASL Roma H, Via Borgo Garibaldi 12, Albano Laziale, 00041 Rome, Italy
7Division of Gastroenterology, “S. Paolo” Hospital, Contrada Capo Scardicchio 82, 00123 Bari, Italy
8Division of General Surgery, “P. Colombo” Hospital, ASL Roma H, Via Orti Ginnetti 7, Velletri, 00049 Rome, Italy
9Gastroenterology Service, ASL BAT, Via Torino 49, 76123 Andria, Italy

Received 17 July 2014; Accepted 14 November 2014

Academic Editor: Anis Larbi

Copyright © 2015 GianMarco Giorgetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The term “microbiota” means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli. Recent studies found probiotics able to preserve intestinal homeostasis by downmodulating the immune response and inducing the development of T regulatory cells. Specific probiotic strain, as well as probiotic-driven metabolic products called “postbiotics,” has been recently recognized and it is able to influence innate immunity. New therapeutic approaches based on probiotics are now available, and further treatments based on postbiotics will come in the future.