Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 510436, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/510436
Review Article

Sepsis: From Pathophysiology to Individualized Patient Care

1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged 6725, Hungary
2Department of Transplantation and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest 1082, Hungary

Received 12 March 2015; Revised 24 June 2015; Accepted 2 July 2015

Academic Editor: Jacek Tabarkiewicz

Copyright © 2015 Ildikó László et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J.-L. Vincent, “We should abandon randomized controlled trials in the intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 38, no. 10, supplement, pp. S534–S538, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. C. Bone, C. J. Fisher Jr., T. P. Clemmer, G. J. Slotman, C. A. Metz, and R. A. Balk, “A controlled clinical trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 317, no. 11, pp. 653–658, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. C. Bone, C. J. Fisher Jr., T. P. Clemmer, G. J. Slotman, G. A. Metz, and R. A. Balk, “Sepsis syndrome: a valid clinical entity. Methylprednisolone Severe Sepsis Study Group,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 389–393, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 864–874, 1992.
  5. J.-L. Vincent, S. M. Opal, J. C. Marshall, and K. J. Tracey, “Sepsis definitions: time for change,” The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9868, pp. 774–775, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes et al., “Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 165–228, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K.-M. Kaukonen, M. Bailey, S. Suzuki, D. Pilcher, and R. Bellomo, “Mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock among critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand, 2000–2012,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 311, no. 13, pp. 1308–1316, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. F. Gaieski, J. M. Edwards, M. J. Kallan, and B. G. Carr, “Benchmarking the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis in the united states,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1167–1174, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. M. Torio and R. M. Andrews, National Inpatient Hospital Costs: The Most Expensive Conditions by Payer, 2011: Statistical Brief #160, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Rockville, Md, USA, 2006–2013.
  10. ProCESS Investigators, D. M. Yealy, J. A. Kellum et al., “A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 18, pp. 1683–1693, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Heublein, M. Hartmann, S. Hagel, R. Hutagalung, and F. M. Brunkhorst, “Epidemiology of sepsis in German hospitals derived from administrative databases,” Infection, vol. 17, article S71, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Engel, F. M. Brunkhorst, H.-G. Bone et al., “Epidemiology of sepsis in Germany: results from a national prospective multicenter study,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 606–618, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Harder, J.-M. Schröder, and R. Gläser, “The skin surface as antimicrobial barrier: present concepts and future outlooks,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Baroni, E. Buommino, V. De Gregorio, E. Ruocco, V. Ruocco, and R. Wolf, “Structure and function of the epidermis related to barrier properties,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 257–262, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Pelaseyed, J. H. Bergström, J. K. Gustafsson et al., “The mucus and mucins of the goblet cells and enterocytes provide the first defense line of the gastrointestinal tract and interact with the immune system,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 260, no. 1, pp. 8–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Rudraraju, B. G. Jones, S. L. Surman, R. E. Sealy, P. G. Thomas, and J. L. Hurwitz, “Respiratory tract epithelial cells express retinaldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A and enhance IgA production by stimulated B cells in the presence of vitamin A,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 1, Article ID e86554, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Ghosh, “Secreted mucosal antimicrobials in the female reproductive tract that are important to consider for HIV prevention,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 575–588, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Kompoti, A. Michopoulos, M. Michalia, P. M. Clouva-Molyvdas, A. E. Germenis, and M. Speletas, “Genetic polymorphisms of innate and adaptive immunity as predictors of outcome in critically ill patients,” Immunobiology, vol. 220, no. 3, pp. 414–421, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. W. Strober and I. J. Fuss, “Proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 1756–1767, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Q. Zhang, M. Raoof, Y. Chen et al., “Circulating mitochondrial DAMPs cause inflammatory responses to injury,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7285, pp. 104–107, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J.-M. Cavaillon, C. Adrie, C. Fitting, and M. Adib-Conquy, “Reprogramming of circulatory cells in sepsis and SIRS,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 311–320, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J.-M. Cavaillon and M. Adib-Conquy, “Bench-to-bedside review: endotoxin tolerance as a model of leukocyte reprogramming in sepsis,” Critical Care, vol. 10, no. 5, article 233, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Kumar, D. Roberts, K. E. Wood et al., “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1589–1596, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Fitting, M. Parlato, M. Adib-Conquy et al., “DNAemia detection by multiplex PCR and biomarkers for infection in systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 6, Article ID e38916, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Leli, A. Cardaccia, M. Ferranti et al., “Procalcitonin better than C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count in predicting DNAemia in patients with sepsis,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 745–752, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. W. Pletz, N. Wellinghausen, and T. Welte, “Will polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics improve outcome in septic patients? A clinical view,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1069–1076, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Michael, Procalcitonin—Biochemistry and Clinical Diagnosis, UNI-MED Science, 1st edition, 2010.
  28. L. Simon, F. Gauvin, D. K. Amre, P. Saint-Louis, and J. Lacroix, “Serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as markers of bacterial infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 206–217, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. M. Tang, G. D. Eslick, J. C. Craig, and A. S. McLean, “Accuracy of procalcitonin for sepsis diagnosis in critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 210–217, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. M. Brunkhorst, U. Heinz, and Z. F. Forycki, “Kinetics of procalcitonin in iatrogenic sepsis,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 888–889, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Meisner, T. Lohs, E. Huettemann, J. Schmidt, M. Hueller, and K. Reinhart, “The plasma elimination rate and urinary secretion of procalcitonin in patients with normal and impaired renal function,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. U. Jensen, L. Heslet, T. H. Jensen, K. Espersen, P. Steffensen, and M. Tvede, “Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2596–2602, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. J. Philpott, M. T. Sorbara, S. J. Robertson, K. Croitoru, and S. E. Girardin, “NOD proteins: regulators of inflammation in health and disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9–23, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Öveges, D. Trásy, M. F. Németh et al., “Increasing procalcitonin kinetics may be a good indicator of infection in critically ill patients,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 40, supplement 1, article 0982, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Marková, H. Brodská, K. Malíčková et al., “Substantially elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), together with low levels of procalcitonin (PCT), contributes to diagnosis of fungal infection in immunocompromised patients,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2733–2742, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Sachse, H. G. Machens, G. Felmerer, A. Berger, and E. Henkel, “Procalcitonin as a marker for the early diagnosis of severe infection after thermal injury,” Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 354–360, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. M. Brunkhorst, A. L. Clark, Z. F. Forycki, and S. D. Anker, “Pyrexia, procalcitonin, immune activation and survival in cardiogenic shock: the potential importance of bacterial translocation,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Connert, W. Stremmel, and C. Elsing, “Procalcitonin is a valid marker of infection in decompensated cirrhosis,” Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 165–170, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Müller, K. L. Becker, H. Schächinger et al., “Calcitonin precursors are reliable markers of sepsis in a medical intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 977–983, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Z. Cao and R. A. S. Robinson, “The role of proteomics in understanding biological mechanisms of sepsis,” Proteomics—Clinical Applications, vol. 8, no. 1-2, pp. 35–52, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Masson, P. Caironi, C. Fanizza et al., “Circulating presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) as a marker of host response in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: data from the multicenter, randomized ALBIOS trial,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Donadello, S. Scolletta, F. S. Taccone et al., “Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic biomarker in critically ill patients,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 144–149, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. I. Johansson, J. Stensballe, L. S. Rasmussen, and S. R. Ostrowski, “High circulating adrenaline levels at admission predict increased mortality after trauma,” Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 428–436, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Adembri, E. Sgambati, L. Vitali et al., “Sepsis induces albuminuria and alterations in the glomerular filtration barrier: a morphofunctional study in the rat,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 6, article R277, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. De Backer, D. O. Cortes, K. Donadello, and J.-L. Vincent, “Pathophysiology of microcirculatory dysfunction and the pathogenesis of septic shock,” Virulence, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. X. Marechal, R. Favory, O. Joulin et al., “Endothelial glycocalyx damage during endotoxemia coincides with microcirculatory dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress,” Shock, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 572–576, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Nikaido, Y. Tanino, X. Wang et al., “Serum syndecan-4 as a possible biomarker in patients with acute pneumonia,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. A. J. M. Loonen, C. P. C. de Jager, J. Tosserams et al., “Biomarkers and molecular analysis to improve bloodstream infection diagnostics in an emergency care unit,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 1, Article ID e87315, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Pierrakos and J.-L. Vincent, “Sepsis biomarkers: a review,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 1, article R15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Dandona, D. Nix, M. F. Wilson et al., “Procalcitonin increase after endotoxin injection in normal subjects,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1605–1608, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Christ-Crain, D. Jaccard-Stolz, R. Bingisser et al., “Effect of procalcitonin-guided treatment on antibiotic use and outcome in lower respiratory tract infections: cluster-randomised, single-blinded intervention trial,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9409, pp. 600–607, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. Bouadma, C.-E. Luyt, F. Tubach et al., “Use of procalcitonin to reduce patients' exposure to antibiotics in intensive care units (PRORATA trial): a multicentre randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9713, pp. 463–474, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Clec'h, J.-P. Fosse, P. Karoubi et al., “Differential diagnostic value of procalcitonin in surgical and medical patients with septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 102–107, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. O. Mimoz, J. F. Benoist, A. R. Edouard, M. Assicot, C. Bohuon, and K. Samii, “Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein during the early posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 185–188, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Sponholz, Y. Sakr, K. Reinhart, and F. Brunkhorst, “Diagnostic value and prognostic implications of serum procalcitonin after cardiac surgery: a systematic review of the literature,” Critical Care, vol. 10, no. 5, article R145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Kaczmarek, P. Vandenabeele, and D. V. Krysko, “Necroptosis: the release of damage-associated molecular patterns and its physiological relevance,” Immunity, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 209–223, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. Uzzan, R. Cohen, P. Nicolas, M. Cucherat, and G.-Y. Perret, “Procalcitonin as a diagnostic test for sepsis in critically ill adults and after surgery or trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1996–2003, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Meisner, K. Tschaikowsky, A. Hutzler, C. Schick, and J. Schüttler, “Postoperative plasma concentrations of procalcitonin after different types of surgery,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 680–684, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. E. Charles, C. Tinel, S. Barbar et al., “Procalcitonin kinetics within the first days of sepsis: relationship with the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy and the outcome,” Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 2, article R38, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Leentjens, M. Kox, R. M. Koch et al., “Reversal of immunoparalysis in humans in vivo: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 186, no. 9, pp. 838–845, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. M. Rau, I. Frigerio, M. W. Büchler et al., “Evaluation of procalcitonin for predicting septic multiorgan failure and overall prognosis in secondary peritonitis: a prospective, international multicenter study,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. Layios, B. Lambermont, J.-L. Canivet et al., “Procalcitonin usefulness for the initiation of antibiotic treatment in intensive care unit patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 2304–2309, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J.-U. Jensen, B. Lundgren, L. Hein et al., “The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS)—a randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population): 1000 patients,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, article 91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. I. Tsangaris, D. Plachouras, D. Kavatha et al., “Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin among febrile critically ill patients with prolonged ICU stay,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, article 213, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Clec'h, F. Ferriere, P. Karoubi et al., “Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin in patients with septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1166–1169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. M. Tortorano, G. Dho, A. Prigitano et al., “Invasive fungal infections in the intensive care unit: a multicentre, prospective, observational study in Italy (2006–2008),” Mycoses, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. T. Montagna, G. Caggiano, G. Lovero et al., “Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in the intensive care unit: Results of a multicenter Italian survey (AURORA Project),” Infection, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 645–653, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. Wisplinghoff, T. Bischoff, S. M. Tallent, H. Seifert, R. P. Wenzel, and M. B. Edmond, “Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 309–317, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. Gloor, C. A. Müller, M. Worni et al., “Pancreatic infection in severe pancreatitis: the role of fungus and multiresistant organisms,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 592–596, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. J. De Waele, D. Vogelaers, S. Blot, and F. Colardyn, “Fungal infections in patients with severe acute pancreatitis and the use of prophylactic therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 208–213, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Martini, L. Gottin, N. Menestrina, V. Schweiger, D. Simion, and J.-L. Vincent, “Procalcitonin levels in surgical patients at risk of candidemia,” Journal of Infection, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 425–430, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Cortegiani, V. Russotto, F. Montalto et al., “Procalcitonin as a marker of Candida species detection by blood culture and polymerase chain reaction in septic patients,” BMC Anesthesiology, vol. 14, article 9, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y.-H. Dou, J.-K. Du, H.-L. Liu, and X.-D. Shong, “The role of procalcitonin in the identification of invasive fungal infection-a systemic review and meta-analysis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 464–469, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. Brodská, K. Malíčková, V. Adámková, H. Benáková, M. M. Šťastná, and T. Zima, “Significantly higher procalcitonin levels could differentiate Gram-negative sepsis from Gram-positive and fungal sepsis,” Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 165–170, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Schuetz, D. N. Amin, and J. L. Greenwald, “Role of procalcitonin in managing adult patients with respiratory tract infections,” Chest, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 1063–1073, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. Cuquemelle, F. Soulis, D. Villers et al., “Can procalcitonin help identify associated bacterial infection in patients with severe influenza pneumonia? A multicentre study,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 796–800, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E. Piacentini, B. Sánchez, V. Arauzo, E. Calbo, E. Cuchi, and J. M. Nava, “Procalcitonin levels are lower in intensive care unit patients with H1N1 influenza A virus pneumonia than in those with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. A pilot study,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 201–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Annborn, J. Dankiewicz, D. Erlinge et al., “Procalcitonin after cardiac arrest—an indicator of severity of illness, ischemia-reperfusion injury and outcome,” Resuscitation, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 782–787, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. N. Yonetci, U. Sungurtekin, N. Oruc et al., “Is procalcitonin a reliable marker for the diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis?” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 591–595, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. P. Zavascki, L. Z. Goldani, J. Li, and R. L. Nation, “Polymyxin B for the treatment of multidrug-resistant pathogens: a critical review,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1206–1215, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. R. Sharp, A. E. DeClue, C. E. Haak, A. R. Honaker, and C. R. Reinero, “Evaluation of the anti-endotoxin effects of polymyxin B in a feline model of endotoxemia,” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 278–285, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. Esteban, R. Ferrer, L. Alsina, and A. Artigas, “Immunomodulation in sepsis: the role of endotoxin removal by polymyxin B-immobilized cartridge,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013, Article ID 507539, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. Shoji, T. Tani, K. Hanasawa, and M. Kodama, “Extracorporeal endotoxin removal by polymyxin B immobilized fiber cartridge: designing and antiendotoxin efficacy in the clinical application,” Therapeutic Apheresis, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Nishibori, H. K. Takahashi, H. Katayama et al., “Specific removal of monocytes from peripheral blood of septic patients by polymyxin B-immobilized filter column,” Acta Medica Okayama, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 65–69, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Taniguchi, “Cytokine adsorbing columns,” Contributions to Nephrology, vol. 166, pp. 134–141, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. Spittler, M. Razenberger, H. Kupper et al., “Relationship between interleukin-6 plasma concentration in patients with sepsis, monocyte phenotype, monocyte phagocytic properties, and cytokine production,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1338–1342, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. R. de Pablo, J. Monserrat, E. Reyes et al., “Mortality in patients with septic shock correlates with anti-inflammatory but not proinflammatory immunomodulatory molecules,” Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 125–132, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. Hetz, R. Berger, P. Recknagel, and H. Steltzer, “Septic shock secondary to β-hemolytic streptococcus-induced necrotizing fasciitis treated with a novel cytokine adsorption therapy,” International Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 422–426, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. Basu, S. Pathak, J. Goyal, R. Chaudhry, R. B. Goel, and A. Barwal, “Use of a novel hemoadsorption device for cytokine removal as adjuvant therapy in a patient with septic shock with multi-organ dysfunction: a case study,” Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 822–824, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. Wiegele and C. G. Krenn, “Cytosorb in a patient with legionella-pneumonia associated rhabdomyolysis,” ASAIO Journal, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. e14–e16, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. A. Kellum, R. Venkataraman, D. Powner, M. Elder, G. Hergenroeder, and M. Carter, “Feasibility study of cytokine removal by hemoadsorption in brain-dead humans,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 268–272, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. J. Wilhelm, J. Pratschke, F. Beato et al., “Activation of the heart by donor brain death accelerates acute rejection after transplantation,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 2426–2433, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. C. L. Day, D. E. Kaufmann, P. Kiepiela et al., “PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression,” Nature, vol. 443, no. 7109, pp. 350–354, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. H. Sharpe, E. J. Wherry, R. Ahmed, and G. J. Freeman, “The function of programmed cell death 1 and its ligands in regulating autoimmunity and infection,” Nature Immunology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 239–245, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. X. Huang, F. Venet, Y. L. Wang et al., “PD-1 expression by macrophages plays a pathologic role in altering microbial clearance and the innate inflammatory response to sepsis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 15, pp. 6303–6308, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. Brahmamdam, S. Inoue, J. Unsinger, K. C. Chang, J. E. McDunn, and R. S. Hotchkiss, “Delayed administration of anti-PD-1 antibody reverses immune dysfunction and improves survival during sepsis,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 233–240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. L. Topalian, F. S. Hodi, J. R. Brahmer et al., “Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 26, pp. 2443–2454, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. R. S. Hotchkiss, G. Monneret, and D. Payen, “Immunosuppression in sepsis: a novel understanding of the disorder and a new therapeutic approach,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 260–268, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. Bronckaers, P. Hilkens, W. Martens et al., “Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a pharmacological and therapeutic approach to accelerate angiogenesis,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 181–196, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Dave, “Mesenchymal stem cells derived in vitro transdifferentiated insulin-producing cells: a new approach to treat type 1 diabetes,” Advanced Biomedical Research, vol. 3, no. 1, article 266, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. F. Casiraghi, G. Remuzzi, M. Abbate, and N. Perico, “Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy and risk of malignancies,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 65–79, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J.-S. Ye, X.-S. Su, J.-F. Stoltz, N. de Isla, and L. Zhang, “Signalling pathways involved in the process of mesenchymal stem cells differentiating into hepatocytes,” Cell Proliferation, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 157–165, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. A. F. Wise and S. D. Ricardo, “Mesenchymal stem cells in kidney inflammation and repair,” Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. X. Han, L. Zhao, G. Lu et al., “Improving outcomes of acute kidney injury using mouse renal progenitor cells alone or in combination with erythropoietin or suramin,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 3, article 74, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. F. Xu, Y. Hu, J. Zhou, and X. Wang, “Mesenchymal stem cells in acute lung injury: are they ready for translational medicine?” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 927–935, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. K. Németh, A. Leelahavanichkul, P. S. T. Yuen et al., “Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E 2-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production,” Nature Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 42–49, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Morigi, M. Introna, B. Imberti et al., “Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells accelerate recovery of acute renal injury and prolong survival in mice,” Stem Cells, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2075–2082, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. F. Tögel, K. Weiss, Y. Yang, Z. Hu, P. Zhang, and C. Westenfelder, “Vasculotropic, paracrine actions of infused mesenchymal stem cells are important to the recovery from acute kidney injury,” The American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 292, no. 5, pp. F1626–F1635, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. F. Anglani, M. Forino, D. Del Prete, E. Tosetto, R. Torregrossa, and A. D'Angelo, “In search of adult renal stem cells,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 474–487, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. J. V. Bonventre and A. Zuk, “Ischemic acute renal failure: an inflammatory disease?” Kidney International, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 480–485, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. G. F. Curley, J. A. Scott, and J. G. Laffey, “Therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of mesenchymal stromal cells for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome,” Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 319–329, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. G. F. Curley, M. Hayes, B. Ansari et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells enhance recovery and repair following ventilator-induced lung injury in the rat,” Thorax, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 496–501, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. J. W. Lee, X. Fang, N. Gupta, V. Serikov, and M. A. Matthay, “Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of E. coli endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in the ex vivo perfused human lung,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 38, pp. 16357–16362, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. A. Rautanen, T. C. Mills, A. C. Gordon et al., “Genome-wide association study of survival from sepsis due to pneumonia: an observational cohort study,” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus