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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 515187, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/515187
Research Article

Neutrophil Migration in the Activation of the Innate Immune Response to Different Flavobacterium psychrophilum Vaccines in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

1Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Andres Bello, 8370146 Santiago, Chile
2Interdisciplinary Center for Aquiculture Aquaculture Research, (INCAR), 8340518 Concepción, Chile
3SEPPIC Brazil, Rua Libero Badaro 182, 01008000 São Paolo, SP, Brazil
4Centro de Investigación Marina Quintay (CIMARQ), Quintay, Chile

Received 26 September 2014; Revised 16 January 2015; Accepted 19 January 2015

Academic Editor: Cuiluan Yao

Copyright © 2015 Camila J. Solís et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a Gram-negative bacterium, responsible for the bacterial cold-water disease and the rainbow trout fry syndrome in freshwater salmonid fish. At present, there is only one commercial vaccine in Chile, made with two Chilean F. psychrophilum isolates and another licensed in Europe. The present study analyzed neutrophil migration, as a marker of innate immune activation, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in response to different F. psychrophilum bath vaccines, which is the first step in evaluating vaccine effectiveness and efficiency in fish. Results indicated that bacterins of the LM-02-Fp isolate were more immunogenic than those from the LM-13-Fp isolate. However, no differences were observed between the same bacteria inactivated by either formaldehyde or heat. Importantly, the same vaccine formulation without an adjuvant only triggered a mild neutrophil migration compared to the complete vaccine. Observations also found that, after a year of storage at 4°C, the activation of the innate immune system by the different vaccines was considerably decreased. Finally, new vaccine formulations prepared with heat and formaldehyde inactivated LM-02-Fp were significantly more efficient than the available commercial vaccine in regard to stimulating the innate immune system.