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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 560347, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/560347
Review Article

HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

1Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, AHC-4, No. 405, Miami, FL 33199, USA
2Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, AHC-5, No. 305, Miami, FL 33199, USA
3Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi 110029, India

Received 25 April 2015; Revised 29 September 2015; Accepted 5 October 2015

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2015 Muni Rubens et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines.