Journal of Immunology Research

Journal of Immunology Research / 2015 / Article
Special Issue

Pathogenesis of Bone Diseases: The Role of Immune System

View this Special Issue

Editorial | Open Access

Volume 2015 |Article ID 785845 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/785845

Giacomina Brunetti, Giorgio Mori, Patrizia D’Amelio, Roberta Faccio, "Pathogenesis of Bone Diseases: The Role of Immune System", Journal of Immunology Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 785845, 2 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/785845

Pathogenesis of Bone Diseases: The Role of Immune System

Received15 Feb 2015
Accepted15 Feb 2015
Published04 May 2015

Bone is a metabolically active tissue that undergoes continuous remodeling by two sequential events, bone formation and resorption. These events are strongly linked and tightly regulated to maintain skeletal homeostasis. The bone cells responsible for the dual events include the bone-resorbing cells, the osteoclasts, arising from monocyte-macrophage precursors, and the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, having a mesenchymal origin. Immune and bone cell activities are linked by several pathways [1] and the former can promote bone building or destruction. Further, immune cells can be involved in the mineralization process occurring in extra-skeletal sites. In this special issue different authors highlighted these items both through research articles and reviews.

In detail, interaction between osteoblast precursors, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [2], and immune cells during fracture repair acts as one of the key factors governing successful bone healing. Additionally, bone damage following immune deregulation may be local as in arthritis and periodontal disease (PD) or systemic as in osteoporosis [3] and osteotropic cancers [4, 5]. It could be multifactorial and thus due to genetic modifications (i.e., Gaucher disease) as well as to lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) mediated release of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., PD, osteomyelitis, and arthritis), and so forth. New insights suggest that, in immune-mediated bone diseases, bone resorption active phases are characterized by increased levels of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs); these molecules together with OSCAR could be indicative of disease progression. Further, osteotropic cancer-related immune alterations showed distinct immune cell phenotype as observed in chronic myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, and bone metastatic solid tumors.

State-of-the-art and new mechanisms are clearly described in this special issue; they can be useful for the identification of new therapeutic targets and bone disease markers.

Giacomina Brunetti
Giorgio Mori
Patrizia D’Amelio
Roberta Faccio

References

  1. G. Mori, P. D'Amelio, R. Faccio, and G. Brunetti, “The interplay between the bone and the immune system,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2013, Article ID 720504, 16 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. G. Mori, M. Centonze, G. Brunetti et al., “Osteogenic properties of human dental pulp stem cells,” Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  3. P. D'Amelio, A. Grimaldi, S. di Bella et al., “Estrogen deficiency increases osteoclastogenesis up-regulating T cells activity: a key mechanism in osteoporosis,” Bone, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 92–100, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. G. Brunetti, G. Colaianni, M. F. Faienza, S. Colucci, and M. Grano, “Osteotropic cancers: from primary tumor to bone,” Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 3-4, pp. 94–102, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. I. Roato, “Interaction among cells of bone, immune system, and solid tumors leads to bone metastases,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2013, Article ID 315024, 7 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2015 Giacomina Brunetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

1388 Views | 392 Downloads | 2 Citations
 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.