Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 951424, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/951424
Review Article

Treatment of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The Rationale of Current Management—An Insight into Future Approaches

1Immunology Research Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Via Zucchi 18, 20095 Cusano Milanino, Italy
2Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan, Italy
3Division of Rheumatology, Istituto Ortopedico Gaetano Pini, Piazza Cardinal Ferrari 1, 20122 Milan, Italy

Received 24 December 2014; Accepted 15 April 2015

Academic Editor: Mahboobeh Mahdavinia

Copyright © 2015 Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [38 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Md. Asiful Islam, Siew Hua Gan, Fahmida Alam, and Teguh Haryo Sasongko, “Antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombotic mechanisms in antiphospholipid syndrome: Towards pathophysiology-based treatment,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 22, no. 28, pp. 4451–4469, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adrià Arboix, Carme Jiménez, Joan Massons, Olga Parra, and Carles Besses, “Hematological disorders: a commonly unrecognized cause of acute stroke,” Expert Review of Hematology, pp. 1–11, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carmelita Marcantoni, Carmela Emmanuele, and Francesco Scolari, “Renal involvement in primary antiphospholipid syndrome,” Journal of Nephrology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christopher Watura, Deirdre Shawe, and Nigel Hacking, “Uterine Artery Embolization Resulting in Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient with Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 764–766, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Malgorzata M Bala, Anetta Undas, Magdalena Celinska-Lowenhoff, Agnieszka Padjas, and Wojciech Szot, “Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents for secondary prevention of stroke and other thromboembolic events in people with antiphospholipid syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2016, no. 4, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Elena Raschi, Alessandra Banzato, Maria Orietta Borghi, Vittorio Pengo, and Pier Luigi Meroni, “The challenges of lupus anticoagulants,” Expert Review of Hematology, pp. 1–12, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Keshavmurthy Adya, Arun Inamadar, and Aparna Palit, “Anticoagulants in dermatology,” Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 626–640, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Gerosa, Pier Luigi Meroni, and Doruk Erkan, “Recognition and management of antiphospholipid syndrome,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anwar Nassar, Imad Uthman, Joe Eid, and Munther Khamashta, “Treatment of Pregnancy Complications in Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, vol. 12, pp. 257–279, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jacob H. Rand, Xiao-Xuan Wu, Lucia R. Wolgast, Victor Lei, and Edward M. Conway, “A novel 2-stage approach that detects complement activation in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS),” Thrombosis Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alexey Kolyada, David Barrios, and Natalia Beglova, “Dimerized Domain V of Beta2-Glycoprotein I Is Sufficient to Upregulate Procoagulant Activity in PMA-Treated U937 Monocytes and Require Intact Residues in Two Phospholipid-Binding Loops,” Antibodies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 8, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gabriele Saccone, Silvia Visentin, Laura Sarno, Serena Xodo, Dalila Bernabini, Francesca Monari, Amanda Roman, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem Eke, Ariela Hoxha, Amelia Ruffatti, Ewoud Schuit, Vincenzo Berghella, Pasquale Martinelli, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Tullio Ghi, Giuseppe Rizzo, Giuliana Simonazzi, Nicola Rizzo, Fabio Facchinetti, and Andrea Dall'Asta, “Antiphospholipid antibody profile based obstetric outcomes of primary antiphospholipid syndrome: the PREGNANTS study,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 216, no. 5, pp. 525–525.e12, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hansel J. Otero, Lowell H. Frank, A. Yasmine Kirkorian, Ankoor Y. Shah, Megan Jamison, Lawrence Jung, and Michael F. Guerrera, “A 17-year-old with chest pain,” Pediatrics, vol. 139, no. 3, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Malgorzata M Bala, Magdalena Celinska-Lowenhoff, Wojciech Szot, Agnieszka Padjas, Mateusz Kaczmarczyk, Mateusz J Swierz, and Anetta Undas, “Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents for secondary prevention of stroke and other thromboembolic events in people with antiphospholipid syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jill R. Schofield, “Autonomic neuropathy—in its many guises—as the initial manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome,” Immunologic Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M. Zarrouk, S. Salim, J. Elf, A. Gottsäter, and S. Acosta, “Testing for thrombophilia in mesenteric venous thrombosis – retrospective original study and systematic review,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ramar Perumal Samy, Octavio L. Franco, Alan P. Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Sok Lin Foo, Bradley G. Stiles, and Lina HK. Lim, “Identification of natural peptides as a new class of antimalarial drugs by in silico approaches,” Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 88–110, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Md. Asiful Islam, Kah Keng Wong, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan, and Fahmida Alam, “Thrombotic management of antiphospholipid syndrome: Towards novel targeted therapies,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 313–316, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Gabriella Raimondo, Pier Luigi Meroni, and Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, “Management of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J.G. Morris, “Coagulopathies and Stroke☆,” Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Sennström, Elisabet Svenungsson, Aleksandra Antovic, and Katarina Bremme, “Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome,” Lupus Science and Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Caillin Wyse Marquardt, Chelsea Kathleen Varner, and Peter Vincent Pickens, “Antiphosphatidylserine antibody as a cause of multiple dural venous sinus thromboses and ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” American Journal of Case Reports, vol. 19, pp. 1042–1046, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sarah Micallef, and Charles Mallia Azzopardi, “Antiphospholipid syndrome masquerading as a case of infective endocarditis,” BMJ Case Reports, pp. bcr-2018-224404, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cecilia Nalli, Valentina Somma, Laura Andreoli, Thomas Büttner, Peter Schierack, Michael Mahler, Dirk Roggenbuck, and Angela Tincani, “Anti-phospholipid IgG antibodies detected by line immunoassay differentiate patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome and other autoimmune diseases,” Autoimmunity Highlights, vol. 9, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Hadas Zafrir-Danieli, Dorit Blickstein, Anat Shmueli, Lina Salman, and Eran Hadar, “Antiphospholipid syndrome characteristics and adverse pregnancy outcomes after 20 weeks of pregnancy,” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, and Pier Luigi Meroni, “Thrombosis and Anti-phospholipid Syndrome: a 5-Year Update on Treatment,” Current Rheumatology Reports, vol. 20, no. 7, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohammed Alaidarous, “Antiphospholipid syndrome associated with lung embolism: A case report,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. OD03–OD04, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maithili Sashindranath, Carly Selan, Lisa Murray-Segal, Karlheinz Peter, Peter J. Cowan, Karen M. Dwyer, Mandana Nikpour, Michael J. Hickey, Anushka N. Samudra, Susanna Freddi, Harshal H. Nandurkar, and Simon C. Robson, “CD39 and CD73 activity are protective in a mouse model of antiphospholipid antibody-induced miscarriages,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 88, pp. 131–138, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Laura Andreoli, Maria Gerosa, Angela Tincani, Amelia Ruffatti, and Pier Luigi Meroni, “The treatment of anti-phospholipid syndrome: A comprehensive clinical approach,” Journal of Autoimmunity, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chris Wincup, and Yiannis Ioannou, “The Differences Between Childhood and Adult Onset Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” Frontiers in Pediatrics, vol. 6, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mitsumasa Okano, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Naoki Tamada, Yuto Shinkura, Ken-ichi Yanaka, Hiroyuki Onishi, Hidekazu Tanaka, Toshiro Shinke, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yutaka Okita, Noriaki Emoto, and Ken-ichi Hirata, “Reversible Parkinsonism and Multiple Cerebral Infarctions after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in a Patient with Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” Internal Medicine, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gulam Khan, and Kevin Singh, “Antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as acute mesenteric venous thrombosis involving a variant inferior mesenteric vein and successful treatment with rivaroxaban,” BMJ Case Reports, vol. 2018, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nattakarn Limphaibool, Mariusz Puszczewicz, and Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, “Clinical implications of systemic lupus erythematosus without and with antiphospholipid syndrome in peri- and postmenopausal age,” Przeglad Menopauzalny, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 86–90, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A Högdén, A Antovic, E Berg, K Bremme, and R Chaireti, “Obstetric outcomes in patients with primary thrombotic and obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome and its relation to the antiphospholipid antibody profile,” Lupus, pp. 096120331985215, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jill R. Schofield, Alan G. Palestine, and Victoria Pelak, “Deep capillary retinal ischemia and high-titer prothrombin-associated antiphospholipid antibodies: A case series of three patients,” American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Francesca Arcadi, Simona Portaro, Roberto Giorgianni, Antonino Naro, Carmela Casella, Carmelo Genovese, Silvia Marino, and Rocco Calabrò, “New versus Old Oral Anticoagulants: How Can We Set the Scale Needle? Considerations on a Case Report,” Medicina, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 71, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rafael Cáliz Cáliz, Petra Díaz del Campo Fontecha, María Galindo Izquierdo, Francisco Javier López Longo, María Ángeles Martínez Zamora, Amparo Santamaría Ortiz, Olga Amengual Pliego, María José Cuadrado Lozano, María Paloma Delgado Beltrán, Loreto Carmona González, Evelin Cecilia Cervantes Pérez, Gisela Díaz-Cordovés Rego, Sandra Garrote Corral, Clara Fuego Varela, María Martín López, Betina Nishishinya, Marta Novella Navarro, Claudia Pereda Testa, Hiurma Sánchez Pérez, Lucia Silva-Fernández, and Víctor Manuel Martínez Taboada, “Recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología sobre síndrome antifosfolípido primario. Parte I: Diagnóstico, evaluación y tratamiento,” Reumatología Clínica, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sarah Goldman-Mazur, Ewa Wypasek, Marek Karpiński, Andrzej Stanisz, and Anetta Undas, “High detection rates of antithrombin deficiency and antiphospholipid syndrome in outpatients aged over 50 years using the standardized protocol for thrombophilia screening,” Thrombosis Research, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar