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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 960859, 19 pages
Review Article

A Review of Intra- and Extracellular Antigen Delivery Systems for Virus Vaccines of Finfish

Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ullevalsveien 72, P.O. Box 8146, 0033 Oslo, Norway

Received 28 October 2014; Revised 8 April 2015; Accepted 9 April 2015

Academic Editor: Kurt Blaser

Copyright © 2015 Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu and Øystein Evensen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vaccine efficacy in aquaculture has for a long time depended on evaluating relative percent survival and antibody responses after vaccination. However, current advances in vaccine immunology show that the route in which antigens are delivered into cells is deterministic of the type of adaptive immune response evoked by vaccination. Antigens delivered by the intracellular route induce MHC-I restricted CD8+ responses while antigens presented through the extracellular route activate MHC-II restricted CD4+ responses implying that the route of antigen delivery is a conduit to induction of B- or T-cell immune responses. In finfish, different antigen delivery systems have been explored that include live, DNA, inactivated whole virus, fusion protein, virus-like particles, and subunit vaccines although mechanisms linking these delivery systems to protective immunity have not been studied in detail. Hence, in this review we provide a synopsis of different strategies used to administer viral antigens via the intra- or extracellular compartments. Further, we highlight the differences in immune responses induced by antigens processed by the endogenous route compared to exogenously processed antigens. Overall, we anticipate that the synopsis put together in this review will shed insights into limitations and successes of the current vaccination strategies used in finfish vaccinology.